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USG CH.15 STUDYGUIDE

Constitutional Freedoms

QuestionAnswer
Libel p. 444 False written/published statements that damage a person's reputation
Slander p. 444 False speech that damages a person's reputation
Defamation p. 444 False expression that injures a person's reputation
Loving V Virginia p. 461 Ruled that a state law criminalizing marriage between people of different races violated the fundamental right o marry
Wiretapping p. 477 An act/instance of tapping telephone/telegraph wires for evidence/info
Affirmative action p. 470 Policies that give preference to women/minorities for jobs, promotions, admission to schools, or other benefits, in order to make up for past or current discrimination
Prior restraint p. 449 Censorship of information before it is published
Secular p. 455 Nonreligious; not associated with any faith based organization.
Commercial speech p. 444 Speech where speaker is more likely to be engaged in commerce and the intended audience is commercial, actual, or potential consumers
Substantive due process p. 460 The principle requiring that a government action not unreasonably interfere with a fundamental/basic right
Gag order p. 450 Order by judge barring press from publishing certain types of information about pending court cases
Seditious speech p. 444 Speech urging the resistance to lawful authority/advocating the overthrow of the government
Graven image p. 457 idol/physical object of worship.
Selective incorporation p. 464 Process which the Supreme Court decide on case-by-case basis which federal rights applied to the states
Rational Basis p. 461 Standard of judicial review that examines whether a legislature had a reasonable/not an arbitrary reason for enacting a particular statute
Sequester p. 450 Hold in isolation
Establishment clause p. 454 First Amendment prohibits state/federal governments from setting up churches, passing laws aiding one/all religions/favoring one religion over another/passing laws requiring attendance at any church or belief in any religious state
Procedural due process p. 460 Fair administration of justice
Fourteenth Amendment provisions and importance p. 459-460 Fourteenth Amendment was used to overturn discrimination laws, such as ban on African Americans on the jury. Later on ruled that separate facilities for African Americans and Whites was unequal
Engel V Vitale p. 455 Supreme Court has held that public schools that sponsored prayer violates the establishment clause
Fighting words p. 444 Words spoken face-to-face that cause violence.
Reynolds V United States p. 457 Mormon man violated polygamy laws even show his religion encouraged this practice
Substantial relationship clause p. 462 Standard of judicial review that examines whether there is a close connection between the law/practice and its purpose; specifically, laws that classify based on gender must serve an important governmental purpose
Roe V Wade p. 476 Established a woman's right to get an abortion during the first 6 months of pregnancy
"A wall of separation between church and state" p. 454 What Thomas Jefferson referred to the establishment clause as
How can a government guarantee both freedom of press and the right to a fair trial? p. 449 Prior restraint; censorship of information before it's published
Created by: erinstolte