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Enlightenment 18th c

18th Century Enlightenment and the expansion of Europe

Key Term- open-field system. Form of agriculture where arable land is divided in a cimmunity in strips which were designated to an individual family.
Key Term- Enclosure movement The fencing off of open fields to enable large landowners to employ crop rotation.
What factors helped eliminate the plauge? Better sanitation. Introduction of quarantine methods. Elimination of the black rat.
What vaccine was developed in the late 18th century? The smallpox vaccine.
Key Term- Mercantilism A system developed by various European states to guarantee a favorable balance of trade with other European nations or with their American colonies.
What was the Seven Years' War? A war fought between France and England and its allies over the competition for colonies.
What was the result of the Seven Years' War? France lost its North American colonies and the British North American colonies grew more independant.
According to Adam Smith, what would foster economic growth? Free competition, limited government regulation and individual self-interest expressed through a supply and demand market system.
Which English thinker advocated the inductive (or experimental) method? Francis Bacon
What was Rene Descartes known for? Writing Discourse on Method. Cartesian dualism. "Cogito ergo sum"--I think therefore I am.
Key Term- Cartesian Dualism The division of all existance into the spiritual and the material.
Which astronomer proved the elliptical orbit path? Johann Kepler.
What did Galileo become famous for? His telesocopic observations that helped prove the Copernican theory. And, sun spots!
Which religion supported the new heliocentric view and why? Which religion did not? The Protestants supported the new view because the new theory symbolized Europe's intellectual freedom. The Catholic church did not because it seemed to contradict the primacy of humanity in God's creation.
Which scientist disvoered the natural laws of motion? (Gravity?) Issac Newton
Key Term- Deism Saw God as a cosmic clockmaker who created the perfect universe and therefore does not have to intervene in it.
Key Term- Rationalism The conviction that the laws of nature are fathomable by human reason and that humanity is perfectable.
What advances were made in mathematics and medicine during the scientific revolution? Math- development of probablity and calculus. Medicine- advances in surgery, anatomy, drug therapy, and the discovery of microorganisms.
Which two important "learned societies" were established during the scientific revolution? The French Academy of Sciences and the Royal Society of London.
Who were the philosophes? A group of literary figures that argued that once the natural laws that governed nature and human existence were discovered, society coild be organized in accordance with them.
Who wrote the Two Treatsies on Civil Government? John Locke
According to Locke, what is the social contract? The agreement between a fair government and responsible individuals.
Which three concepts made up the Two Treatsies? The consent of the governed. The social contract. The right of revolution.
According to Locke, when is okay for the people to revolt? When the government oversteps its boundaries of protecting the life, liberty and property of the citizens.
Who was famous for the phrase "Ecrasez l'infame"? Voltaire. (It means "Crush the infamous.")
What did Voltaire preach? Deism. Human reason is good.
What movement did Rousseau found? Romantic movement.
What ideas is Rousseau famous for? General will should control a nation. Noble savage-civilization corrupted humankind. Life in state of nature was pure.
To Rousseau what is the goal of the individual? The group? Individual- To attain full expression of natural instincts. Group- To attain national self-determination.
What ideas did Rousseau advocate in his Emile? He argued that children need to be understood as individuals and that they need caring from their teachers and parents.
What did Montesquieu write and what did he argue? He wrote the Spirit of the Laws. It argued that the powers of the government must be separated to avoid despotism. The system would work due to its checks and balances. Much like our systems today.
What did Diderot write? The Encyclopedia-a collection of political and social critiques.
Who was Francois Quesnay and what ideas did he support? He was the leader of the physiocrats. Their motto was the laissez-faire. Believed that governments should remove restraints to free trade.
Discuss Adam Smith and his Wealth of Nations. He refined and expaned the laissez-faire philosophy. His book defined capitalism. Economy governed by natural lawa- supply and demand,competition.
What is an ideal Enlightened Despot? A ruler that aimed for the advancement of socviety by fostering education, aiding the economy, and promoting social justice.
What family ruled Prussia for the 18th century? The Hohenzollern's!
What was Prussia famous for duing the time of the Enlightenment? Their army.
What did Frederick the Great do? Made Prussia a great power. Patronized Voltaire. Improved Education. Codified laws. Fostered industry. Invited immigration. Extended religious toleration. Was a total Enlightened Despot.
Who were the aristocratic landowners in Russia? The Boyars.
What is serfdom? A condition of being bound to the land that had ended in virtually all of Western Europe.
What achievements were attributed to Peter the Great? (He was a Romanov btw) Gained territory in the Baltic Sa, the Black Sea, and the Far East. Westernized Russia. Build the capital of St.Petersburg. Reformed the governemnt bureaucracy and the Russian Orthodox Church. Modern army. Encouraged commerce and industry.
Why does Cathernine the Great give up on her enlightened reforms? Revolts from the Cossacks (Pugachev Rebellion) gained ground with the peasants.
What territories did Catherine the Great take over? She annexed Polish and Ottoman land.
What is Joseph II noted for? Guaranteeding freedom of press and religion, reforming judicial system for greater class equality, German is made official language. Abolish serfdom!! He's in Austria.
What did Maria Theresa do for Austria? Centralized the government. Promoted commerce. Limited power of nobles.
Created by: ApEuroReview