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A&P1 - Chapter 17

The Special Senses

__ coat the olfactory epithelium with a pigmented mucus. olfactory glands
Olfactory information is first received by which part of the brain? cerebrum
What happens to olfactory discrimination as we age? the number of olfactory receptors decline
Some neural tissues retain stem cells and thus the capacity to divide and replace lost neurons. Which of the special senses can replace its damaged neural receptors? olfaction
A normal, relaxed inhalation carries about __ of the inhaled air to the olfactory organs. 2%
How would a molecule that mimics cAMP affect an olfactory receptor? increase in sodium permeability, open chemically gated sodium channels, depolarize the olfactory receptor, and could trigger an afferent action potential
Gustatory receptors are located? on the surface of the tongue
Destruction to your left glossopharyngeal nerves would result in? a reduction in ability to identify sour and bitter foods
Stimulation of noiceptive receptors within the trigeminal nerve might produce a perception of? peppery hot
An adult has approximately __ taste buds. 4,000,000
Taste buds are monitored by which cranial nerve(s)? facial nerve (VIII), vagus nerve (X), and glossopharyngeal nerve (IX)
A patient who experienced head trauma has lost the ability to taste spicy food. You should expect damage to cranial nerve? V
What are the six primary taste sensations? sweet, sour, salty, umami (NOTpeppery)
The taste sensation that is triggered by the amino acid glutamate is known as? umami
The palpebrae are connected at the? canthus
A structure that is located at the medial canthus glands that contribute to a gritty deposit is the? lacrimal caruncle
What produces a lipid rich secretion that prevents the upper and lower eyelids from sticking together at their edges? tarsal gland
In the human eye, most refraction occurs when light passes through the? cornea
What are the functions of tears? protects the eye by: keeping the eye moist and contains antibodies to fight off infection
What is the common term for myopia? nearsightedness
A ray of light entering the eye will encounter the following structures in which order? conjunctiva>cornea>aqueous humor>lens>vitreous body>retina
Pupillary muscle groups are controlled by the ANS. Parasympathetic activation causes pupillary __, and sympathetic activation causes __? constriction, dilation
If your vision is 20/15, this means you can see? objects at 20 feet that individuals with normal eyesight can see at 15 feet
During accomodation, the ciliary muscle __ and the suspensory ligaments become __ which, in turn, cause the lens to become __. contracts, loose, round
The optic disc is a blind spot because? there are no photoreceptors in that area
During accommodation, the ciliary muscle __ causeing the ciliary body to move __ and apply __ tension on the lens. contracts, forward, less
Use Figure 17-1 The Sectional Anatomy of the Eye Identify the space labeled "1"
Use Figure 17-1 The Sectional Anatomy of the Eye Identify the structure labeled "7"
Use Figure 17-1 The Sectional Anatomy of the Eye Identify the structure labeled "12"
A sudden increase of light into the eye would cause? contraction of the sphincter pupillary muscles
In the light adapted state, photoreceptors are much __ sensitive to stimulation. less
There are three different types of cones, each one sensitive to different light energies. These cones are designated __? red, green, blue
When all three cone populations are stimulated equally, we perceive ___? white
Visual pigments are derivatives of the compound __? rhodopsin
A pigment synthesize from vitamin A is ___? retinal
Having to adjust to a dark room after walking in from bright light is because? rods exposed to strong light need time to regenerate rhodopsin
The __ ear collects sounds waves and transmits them to the __ ear, which contains auditory ossicles. outer
The external acoustic meatus ends at the __? tympanic membrane
The auditory ossicles connect the ___? tympanic membrane to the oval window
The vibrations received by the tympanic membrane are transferred to the oval window by the __? auditory ossicles
The middle ear communicates with the nasopharynx through the ___? auditory tube or Eustachian tube
Gravity and linear acceleration are sensed in the __? saccule and utricle
The superficial hard part of the inner ear is called the __ and contains __. bony labyrinth, perilymph
The structure attached to the oval window that transmits vibrations from the tympanic membrane to the inner ear is the __? stapes
What is the function of the auditory tube? equalize air pressure on both sides of the tympanic membrane
An infection that damages the vestibular nerve could result in a loss of __? equilibrium
The following is a list of the steps that occur in the production of an auditory sensation. What is the proper sequence for these steps? 2, 4, 6, 1, 5, 3
Perception of gravity and linear acceleration depends on the force exerted by otoliths on hair cells of the __. maculae
Sound waves are converted into mechanical movements by the?
Use Figure 17-2 The Ear Identify the structures labeled "8"
Use Figure 17-2 The Ear Which structure contains the receptors for hearing?
Use Figure 17-2 The Ear Which structure is known as the vestibule?
Use Figure 17-2 The Ear Identify the structure that is called the pinna or auricle.
Use Figure 17-2 The Ear Identify the structures labeled "3"
The olfactory organs consists of the __ and the lamina propria. olfactory epithelium
The olfactory receptors are highly modified __. sensory neurons
Olfactory glands secrete a thick, pigmented __ that absorbs water. mucus
Taste buds on the tongue are often associated with epithelial projections called __? lingual papillae
A typical gustatory cell survives for only about __ day(s) before it is replaced. 10
Modified sebaceous glands located along the margin of the eyelid that secrete a lipid rich product are called __ glands. tarsal
A(n) __ is an infection in one of the glands on the eyelids. sty
The abnormality that develops when a lens loses its transparency is known as __. a cataract
___, or pinkeye, results from damage to or irritation of the conjunctival surface. conjunctivitis
Where the eyelids join at the medial or lateral edge is called the? canthus
An irregularity in curvature in the cornea or lens, called __, causes a reduction in visual acuity. astigmatism
A person suffering from __ can see objects that are close, but distant objects appear blurred. myopia
A person suffering from __ can see distant objects more clearly than those that are close. hyperopia
A type of farsightedness that results from a loss of lens elasticity with age is __. presoyopia
A young child has been diagnosed with a recessive hereditary disease that results in destruction of the geniculate nucleus. The result of this would be __. partial loss of vision
Photoreceptor cells that are most useful in dim light are __. rods
Photoreceptors that convey our ability to see color are __. cones
Color blindness is a(n) hereditary disease involving a lack of certain cones
The secretion commonly called earwax is produced by __ glands. ceruminous
__ is a fluid similar to cerebrospinal fluid that fills the space between the bony labyrinth and the membranous labyrinth. perilymph
__ deafness results from conditions in the outer or middle ear that block the transfer of vibrations from the enviroment to the tympanic membrane or to the oval window. conductive
__ deafness occurs because of a problem in the cochlea or somewhere along the auditory pathway. nerve
Abnormal jumpy eye movements that may appear after brain stem or inner ear damage are called __. nystagmus
The formal term for the sense of balance and equilibrium is the __ sense. vestibular
__ sensations inform is of the position of the head in space by monitoring gravity, linear acceleration and rotation. vestibular
When you spin quickly, you may feel dizzy. Which component of the inner ear generates the sensations that can lead to this feeling? semicircular canal
The cochlear receptors that provide our sense of hearing are ___. hair cells
Created by: jnipper
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