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A&P1 - Chapter 16

The Autonomic Nervous System and Higher-Order Functions

QuestionAnswer
The __ division of the autonomic nervous system is said to function during "rest and digest". parasympathetic
The sympathetic division of the ANS is also known as which of the following? thoracolumbar division
The parasympathetic nervous system is especially active during which physiological state? digestion
Craniosacral division is another name for the? parasympathetic division of the ANS
Sympathetic preganglionic neurons are __ and have __ axons. short, myelinated
In the sympathetic nervous system, where are the preganglionic neurons located? thoracis and lumbar segments of the spinal cord
In what ways do the two divisions of the autonomic nervous system interact?
Stimulation of the neurons in the celiac ganglion would lead to? conversion of liver glycogen reserves into glucose
Injury to the cervical sympathetic ganglia would affect the function of the? heart, pupils, salivary glands and lungs
The suprarenal medullae secrete? both epinephrine and norepinephrine
During sympathetic activation, __ occurs? elevated heart rate, elevated blood pressure, sweating and elevated blood glucose
Splanchnic nerves innervate the? viscera or internal organs
As the result of an accident, the white rami of spinal nerves T1 and T2 on the left side of Brad's body are severed. What organ(s) would you expect to be affected by this injury? left pupil and heart
A person is confronted by a dangerous dog. His heart begins to race and beat strongly, his pupils dilate, and his hairs stand up. These signs are the result of __ ? the "fight or flight" response
Tom suffers from hypertension (high blood pressure). What type of drug might help deal with his problem? a drug that blocks alpha-1 receptors in smooth muscle and blocks beta receptors in cardiac muscle tissue
Drugs that have effects similar to those of sympathetic activation are called sympathomimetic drugs. Which of the following would you NOT expect to observe in a person who has taken a sympathomimetic drug? decreased blood pressure
Drugs known as beta-blockers may be useful for treating? excessive heart rate
Postganglionic sympathetic axons can release the neurotransmitter __ at their effector junctions. acetylcholine, nitric oxide, norepinephrine and ACH
The neurotransmitter ACH is always excitatory when used in the synapses of the __ nervous system. sympathetic
A certain drug decreases heart rate by blocking a receptor on cardiac pacemaker cells. This drug probably binds to __ receptors. beta-1 adrenergic
Disorders involving the vagus nerve might cause? food to remain in your stomach longer
The statement "it initiates contraction of urinary bladder smooth muscle" is true only for the __ nervous system. parasympathetic
Almost 75% of all parasympathetic outflow travels along the __ nerve(s). vagus
Parasympathetic functions include? decrease in rate of cardiac contraction, constriction of pupils, stimulation of urination and stimulation of defecation (NOT dilation of airways)
Parasympathetic stimulation increases? gastric motility
Damage to the glossopharyngeal nerve would likely cause? a reduction in saliva
Sweat glands contain __ receptors. muscarinic cholinergic
Describe Muscarinic receptors. are normally activated by acetylcholine
Parasympathetic blocking agents can be useful in treating? urinary inconsistence
A doctor places drops in the eyes to dilate the pupils for an examination. The type of drug that is used is a(n) __ drug. (can be more than one) 1. sympathomimetic 2. parasympathomimetic 3. adrenergic activating 4. cholinergic activating sympathomimetic, adrenergic activating
Mary accidentally are poison mushrooms that contain muscarine. What symptoms would you expect to observe? diarrhea, salivation, very low heart rate and sweating
Dual innervation refers to an organ receiving? both sympathetic and parasympathetic innervation
A decrease in the autonomic tone of the smooth muscle in a blood vessel would result in a/an __ blood flow through a vessel. increase
What are some examples of a visceral reflex? defecation reflex, vomiting reflex, pupillary reflex and ejaculation in response to tactile stimuli
What structure is essential for memory consolidation?
Long term memories that are with you for a lifetime are called __ memories. tertiary
Conversion of a short term memory to a long term memory is called? memory consolidation
The conscious state is maintained by the? reticular activating system
Based on stimulation studies, the "headquarters" of the reticular activating system appears to be based in the? midbrain
A state of unconsciousness in which an individual can be aroused by normal stimuli is? sleep
A state of unconsciousness in which an individual cannot be aroused even by strong stimuli is? coma
The brain waves produced by normal adults while resting with their eyes closed are __ waves. alpha
In deep sleep, the EEG pattern is characterized by? "slow wave"
The regulation of awake sleep cycles appear to involve an interplay between brain stem nuclei that use different neurotransmitters. The one that favors alertness is __ and the other promoting deep sleep is __. norepinephrine, serotonin
Hallucinogenic drugs, such as LSD, function by stimulating? serotonin receptors
The inherited brain disorder Huntington's disease is caused by the destruction of basal nuclei that use different neurotransmitters. One is __ and the other is __. acetylcholine, GABA
What mental illness is often improved by drugs that block serotonin re-uptake? depression
An age related decline in mental function characterized by difficulties with spatial orientation, memory, language and personality is called? senile dementia
Changes in the central nervous system that accompany aging includes? reduction in brain size and weight, decrease in number of the neurons, decrease flood flow to the brain, changes in synaptic organization in the brain
The parasympathetic division is also called the __ division. craniosacral
The saying "rest and digest" is the response of the __ division of the ANS. parasympathetic
The sympathetic division is also called the __ division. thoracolumbar
If the receptor on the postsynaptic membrane binds to norepinephrine, the synapse is called? adrenergic
Neurons that release norepinephrine as a neurotransmitter are called? adrenergic
Most vital organs receive __ innervation. That is, they receive input from both sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions. dual
__ reflexes perform the simplest functions of the autonomic nervous system. somatic
Visceral reflex arcs can bypass CNS neurons in __ reflexes. short
The integrative centers for autonomic activity are located in the? hypothalamus
During __ sleep, the entire body relaxes and the activity of the cerebral cortex is at a minimum. deep
During __ sleep, dreaming occurs. REM
Created by: jnipper