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NAU A&P 10

NAU The Nervous System 1

System for information and communication Nervous System
2 Structural division of the nervous system Central Nervous System (CNS) & Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
Any tissue or organ that carries out a command from the nervous system. Effector
Portion of the neuron that transmits impulses from the spinal cord and brain Efferent
Portion of the neuron that transmits impulses to the spinal cord and brain Afferent
Functional cells that transmits impulses Neuron
Brings information into the neuron Dendrite
Takes information away from the neuron Axon
Body of the neuron Soma or Perikaryon
Protects, cleans up after neurons. Does not transmit an impulse. Ex: mom cells Neuroglia
4 Types of Neuroglia Cells Astrocytes, Oligodendrocytes, Microglia and Ependymal Cells
Star-shaped cells that aid in cellular metabolism Astrocytes
Responsible for creating myelin sheaths within the CNS. Oligodendrocytes
Phagotizes any cellular debris. EX: Pacman Microglia
Cells that line the cavities within the CNS, to help circulate cerebrospinal fluid. This layer is the blood brain barrier. Alcohol, recreation drugs, nicotine and anesthesia can break through this barrier. Ependymal Cells
Open and free communication, so neurons can communicate with one another. Is unmyelinated tissue. Grey Matter
Myleinated tissue, that has walls and no free communication between the neurons. White Matter
Protective tissue around nervous tissue in CNS. Myelin Sheath
Consists of only the brain and spinal cord Central Nervous System (CNS)
Consists of the rest of the nervous system and the 12 cranial nerves Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
Creates myelin sheath (like a set of beads, which creates another myelin sheath) or a protective covering around axons. Like a band-aid middle part being the nucleus and the sticky part is the cytoplasm. Schwann Cells
Little gaps in the Schwann cell that allows for information to get to the neurons faster Nodes of Ranvier
Classifications of Neurons and Neuroglia Cells, which is based on the numbers of processes Unipolar neuron, Bi-polar neuron and Multi-polar neurons
Single process or dendrite extending from its cell body. Can receive information but does not interpret it. Unipolar Neuron
Two processes or dendrites extending from its cell body. Can receive information and interpret it, then moves on. Ex: eyes and tastebuds Bipolar Neuron
Many processes or dendrites extending from its cell body. Receives information from everywhere at once, interprets and sends out appropriate responses. Ex: gossiping neurons Multipolar Neurons
A terminal end of a nerve or a point at which a nerve meets something (organ, muscle or another nerve) to convey information Synapse
Four components of a synapse Presynaptic neuron, Synaptic Cleft, Neurotransmitter, Postsynaptic Neuron
The portion of a nerve before receiving info Presynaptic Neuron
Chamber in a cell that can hold anything in the neuron or holds the transmitter Vesicle
The space between neurons and its intended target. Synaptic Cleft
The chemical catalyst or stimulant that determines how far the information has to go. Neurotransmitter
The target that receives the information Postsynaptic Neuron
Less than the appropriate amounts of neurotransmitters that are released & received in short supply. Ex: Twitch Sub-threshold Stimulus
Adequate amounts of neurotransmitter or acetocholine and therefore is transmitted into a full contraction. Threshold Stimulus
Six types of synapses that occur, the type of common communication. Axondendritic, Axosomatic, Dendrodendritic, Axoaxonic, Convergence and Divergence
Linear thinking synapse, is straightforward Axondendritic
Synapse where the axon bypasses the dendrite and goes to the body of the neuron Axosomatic
Synapse that spends time gathering information before responding. Dendrodentritic
Synapse where all axons are doing the same action. Ex: the wave at a stadium Axoaxonic
Synapse where all information comes from everywhere that comes down to one point. In class, hearing talking, learning, action is to take notes Convergence
Synapse from a single source that spreads to all neurons. Ex: child walking in front of bus, instinct save child. Divergence
Starts with a local reversal in the membrane potential that changes the ion concentration on either side of the membrane. Impulse
Sodium ions line up on the surface of the membrane, the capability to do work but is not doing anything at the moment. Resting Potential
The surface charge disappears and the sodium channels open and potassium channels close, at the peak of action. Depolarization OR Excitatory Post Synaptic Potential
All potassium ions leave through the potassium channels. Repolarization
All channels open, simultaneously the potassium ions leave the membrane and sodium ions enter the mebrane. Hyperpolarization OR Inhibitory Post Synaptic Potential
This process occurs on every single segment of the membrane, in a wavelike pattern until the entire nerve is effected. Action Potential
Five types of neurotransmitters Acetylcholine, Biogenic Amines, Amino acids, Neuropeptides and Gases
Found in CNS and PNS. Controls skeletal muscle. Can excite or inhibit autonomic responses or neuromuscular transmitters Acetylcholine
A synapse that occurs without thinking about it. Ex: Breathing Autnomic Synapse
Synapse that occurs because it is controlled. Ex: moving your hand off a burner Voluntary Synapse
4 type of Biogeneic Amines Norepinephrine or Norepidrenaline, Dopamine, Serotonin and Histamines
Found in CNS & PNS, work on autonomic actions. Is calming neurotransmitter. Brings body into homeostasis Norepinephrine or Norepidrenaline
Found in CNS & PNS, creates a sense of well being. Deficiency in some areas are associated with Parkinson's disease. may excite or inhibit depending on receptors. Dopamine
Found in CNS. Is an inhibitory neurotransmitter which leads to sleepiness Serotonin
Found in CNS. Releases in hypothalmus and promotes alertness. Histamine
2 types of Amino Acids GABA and Glutamate
Found in CNS. Generally inhibitory. GABA
Found in CNS. Generally exhibitory. Glutamate
2 types of Neuropeptides Enkephalins/Endorphins and Substance P
Found in CNS. Generally inhibitory. Reduces pain by inhibiting the release of substance P. Ex: gives sensational feeling from eating chocolate and having sex. Enkephalins/Endorphins
Found in PNS. Is excitatory. Pain perception. Lets the body know when it is in pain. Substance P
Found in CNS & PNS. Is a gas. Plays a role in memory for CNS. Causes vasodilation in PNS. Nitric Acid
Dilation of the blood vessels. Ex: Dilating to send blood to brain. Vasodilation
Created by: FKrouse