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Chapter 24


carbohydrates are derived from... plants
what is the carbohydrate molecule used as fuel to produce ATP? glucose
what happens to excess glucose? converted to glycogen - stored for later use
complex carbohydrates are __ such as ___ starches - bread, sugar, flour pasta
which type of carbohydrate digests quicker? simple carohydrates
shortage of glucose can... depress brain function
simple carbohydrates are ___ such as ___ sugars - carbonated drinks, candy, fruit, icecream
___ is a major energy fuel for hepatocytes & skeletal muscles, ATP synthesis, body insulation, and protective padding trigyclerides
lipids help absorb... fat-soluble vitamins
the healthy fatty acids are called... omega 3 fatty acids
fish oil, vegetable oil (canola, soy) and walnuts are known as... omega 3 fatty acids
eggs, milk, milk products are known as ___ proteins complete
incomplete proteins are things like... legumes, nuts, seeds , grains
in order to make a protein you must... have all 10 amino acids
for optimal protein synthesis, the body must... supply enough carb/fat calories for ATP production
minerals.... work with other nutrients to ensure smooth functioning of the body
__ are organic compounds needed for growth & good health vitamins
vitamins function as ___which... coenzymes - act with an enzyme to accomplish a particular task
the only 3 vitamins that are made in the body are vitamins... B, D & K
the B and C vitamins are known as... fat-soluble vitamins
vitamins A, D, E and K are considered __ vitamins water-soluble
vitamin A is an...which functions in... antioxidant, visual pigment
vitamin E... antioxidant - prevents damage to cell membrane
an antioxidant... neutralizes damaging free radicals
this vitamin removes CO2 B1
which vitamin has components of FAD and FMN? B2
vitamin B3 is a component of... NAD
vitamin B5 is a component of... acetyCOA
this vitamin is a coenyzme in nucelic acid metabolism... B12
vitamin C is an antioxidant that functions in... synthesis of bone and cartilage
what mineral(s) function in bone & teeth formation? calcium & phosphorus
magnesium is a mineral used for... ATP bioenergetics
this mineral functions in nerve function & water balance potassium
sodium is a mineral that... keeps water in the body
cholorine is a __ mineral acid/base balance
the 3 trace minerals are... iron, cobalt & iodine
iron is a trace mineral that... forms hemoglobin
which trace mineral is a component of thyroid hormone? iodine
cobalt is a component of... B12
all food carbohydrates are eventually transformed to... glucose
glycogenesis is when... extra glucose is linked together to form glycogen
glycogenesis occurs in the ___ when glucose levels are.. liver & skeletal muscles - high
glycogenolysis is ... breaking down glycogen to release glucose for energy
___ converts fats & amino acids to glucose... glucogeogenesis
glucogeogenesis occurs when.... glucose reserves are used up - glucose levels begin to drop
___ protects the body from damaging nervous system by ensuring ATP synthesis can continue gluconeogenesis
lipolysis breaks down... lipids to fatty acids & glycerol
___ is how we store excess calories lipogenesis
___ converts fatty acids --> acetylcoA beta oxidation
how do we get energy from fat? krebs citric cycle
ketogenesis is when the liver converts.. acetycoA --> ketone bodies
if you're not using carbs to make energy...what is made? ketone bodies
when ketone bodies accumulate in the blood, this results in... which then leads to ___ ketosis --> metabolic acidosis
when amino group is switched from an amino acid to a keto acid this is known as... transamination
oxidative deamination is when.... an amine group is removed
the absorptive state takes place when... body is fed - during or after eating
main hormone in absorptive state... insulin
main hormone in post-absorptive state... glucagon
this state is known as the fasting state when body is running off of stored supplies... post-absorptive state
known as the good cholesterol... HDL - removes cholesterol from the tissues
LDL is known as the ___ cholesterol, which... bad - delivers cholesterol to the tissues
you gain weight when your energy __ exceeds your ___ intake - output
__ is a indicator in total fat deposits which tends to increase satiety leptin
___ is a hormone that tells your stomach you're hungry ghrelin
energy needed to perform essential activities such as breathing BMR
Created by: Mariahj25