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Integument System

Skin consists of three major regions epidermis, dermis, hypodermis
Epidermis outermost superficial region
Dermis middle region
Hypodermis (superficial fascia) deepest region
The epidermis is composed of keratinized stratified squamous epithelium, consisting of four distinct cell types and four or five layers
Cell types include keratinocytes, melanocytes, Merkel cells, and Langerhans' cells
Outer portion of the skin is exposed to the external environment and functions in protection
Keratinocytes produce the fibrous protein keratin
Melanocytes produce the brown pigment melanin
Langerhans' cells epidermal macrophages that help activate the immune systems
Merkel cells function as touch receptors in association with sensory nerve endings
Layers of the epidermis Stratum Basale, Stratum Spinosum, Stratum Granulosum, Stratum Lucidum, and Stratum Corneum
Stratum Basale Basal layer
Deepest epidermal layer firmly attached to the dermis
Consists of a single row of the youngest keratinocytes
Cells undergo rapid division, hence its alternate name, stratum germinativum
Stratum Spinosum Prickly layer
Cells contain a weblike system of of intermediate filaments attached to desmosomes
Melanin granules and Langerhans' cells are abundant in this layer
Stratum Granulosum Granular layer
Created by: magsterk9