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Chapter 6

Osseous Tissue and Bone Structure

Entire framework of bones and their cartilages, and ligaments skeletal system
New bone tissue is made by ostoblasts
Resorption of old bone tissue by osteoclasts
The study of bone structure and the treatment of bone disorders osteology
6 functions of the skeletal system 1. support of internal organs 3.movement 4.mineral homeostasis 5.hemopoiesis of fat
7 bone structures 1.epiphysis 2.metaphysis 3.diaphysis 4.articular cartilage 5.periosteum 6.medullary cavity 7.endosteum
Epiphysis ends of a long bone (proximal or distal)
Metaphysis where diaphysis and epiphysis meet (growth plate)
Diaphysis shaft/body
Articular cartilage thin layer of hyaline that reduces friction and absorbs shock
Periosteum tough connective tissue covering outside of bone
Meduallary cavity fat/yellow marrow lightens weight of bone
Endosteum thin membranous inner lining of meduallary cavity
Sharpey's perforating fibers holds the periosteum on (Velcro)
The first hole in the bone where the first artery came out of while in the womb nutrient foramina
Mineral salts deposited in extracellular matrix (hydroxyapatite)
Calcification hardness of bone (child to adult)
Flexibility depends of collagen fibers
Osteoclasts break bone down
3 types of bone cells 1.osteoblasts (immature cell, secrete osteoid) 2.osteocytes (mature cells, maintain hardened bone) 3.osteoclasts (release calcium)
Compact bone dense along diaphysis and at epiphysis
Spongy bone lightweight provides support and only at the ends of bone
What makes up compact (cortical) bone? 80% of sketeton 1.osteon 2.central canal 3.concentric lamellae 4.lacunae 5.canaliculi
Osteon "tree" structural units of bone
Central canal contains artery and vein
Concentric lamellae circular rings of matrix
Lacunae "little lakes" where osteocytes live
Canaliculi "small channels" how osteocytes breathe, eat, and connect
Spongy (trabecular) bone 20% of skeleton no osteons always inside bone oriented along stress lines to transfer force
Trabeculae thin columns of bone
Fills spaces between trabeculae in blood producing bones red marrow
Fills spaces between trabeculae in all other bones (adipose tissue) yellow marrow
When long bone stops growing after puberty and are visible on x-rays epiphyseal lines
Stages of fracture 1.bleeding forms a clot 2.callus (young bone) 3.remodeling
Disorganized, immature woven bone calluses
Homeostasis is maintained by calcitonin and parathyroid hormone (PTH)
Puts the bone in (blast) calcitonin
Takes bone out (clast) parathyroid hormone (PTH)
How long does it take to loose one-third of bone mass because of inactivity? 3 weeks
Bones become thinner and weaker with age (30-40) osteopenia
Severe bone loss osteoporosis
Open (compound) fracture complete break where some of the bone is out of the skin
Comminuted complete break that fragments the body
Greenstick incomplete break that occurs on the convex surface of the bone
Impacted occurs at an angle
Potts breaks on one side and tears on the other
Colles fall on out stretched hand (FOOSH)
Most common broken carpal bone (wrist) scaphoid carpal bone
Fossa shallow, basin like depression
Condyle rounded articular projection
Epicondyle raised area above a condyle
Head bony expansion on a narrow neck
Trochanter large, blunt, irregular surface
Tuberosity rounded projection
Process any bony prominence
Crest narrow, prominent ridge of bone
Line narrow ridge of bone
Fovea small pit like indent
Tubercle small rounded projection
Ramus arm like bar of bone
Spine sharp, slender projection
Foramen round or oval opening through a bone
Fissure narrow, slit like opening
Meatus canal-like passageway
Sinus space within a bone
Created by: swesley11



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