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Chapter 11

Nervous system

central nervous system CNS consist of brain and spinal cord brain is largest and most complex part of the nervous system sensation perception movement thinking control
brain consist of two cerebral hemispheres diencephalon brain stem cerebellum
PNS Peripheral nerves both brain and spinal cord connect to this nervous sytem
meniges membrane that protect brain and spinal cord lie between bone and soft tissues of nervous system
the meninges membranes that protect brain and spinal cord has three layers
dura mater outer layer tough dense connective tissue
arachnoid mater middle layer weblike subarachnoid space contains cerebospinal fluid
Pia mater inner layer attached to surface of brain and spinal cord blood vessels and nerves nourishes CNS
Cerebosinal fludi secreted by the choroid plexuses special capillaries of pia mater
arachnoid granulations volume is aout 140ml at any time
cerebrospinal fluid pressure continuous secrection and reabsorption of cerebrospinal fluid keeps fluid pressure in ventricles constant
traumatic brain injury result of mechanical force such as fall attach accident sports injury
concussion a mild tbi typically results from a one time injury and has no lasting symptoms
chronic traumatic enecphalopathy sports related mild repetitive tbi results from many small injures over time symptoms begin years later and have long lasting effects on memory and behavior
blast related brain injury severe tbi resulting from explosions in combat situations often leads to cognitive decline years after injury
neural tube gives rise to CNS brain forms from three vesicles forebrain midbrain and hindbrain
cerebral hemispheres two hales separated by fax cerebri
corpus callosum connects cerebral hemispheres
gyri ridges or convilutions
sulci shallow grooves in surface
fissures deep grooves in surface
longitudinal seprates the cerebral hemispheres
transverse separates cerebrum from cerebellum
five lobes of the cerebral hemispheres frontal parietal temporal occipital insula
cerebral cortex thin layer of grey matter which makes up outermost layer of the cerebrum
white matter lies under cerebral cortex makes up most of cerebrum contains bundles of myelinated axons
cutaneous sensory area parietal lobe interprets sensations on skin
sensory speech area (wernicke's area) temporal parietal lobe usually left hemisphere understand and formulating language
visual area occipital lobe interprets vision
auditory area temporal lobe interprets hearing
sensory area for taste near base of the central sulcus includes part of insula
sensory area for smell arise from centers deep within temporal lobes
broca's aphasia loss of ability to produce language spoken or written (patient aware of issue)
wernick's aphasia can not choose the correct words to express though speaks random words to express though (patient is aware of issue)
Frontal lobe association areas concentration planning complex problem solving emotional behavior judging consequences of behavior
parietal lobe association areas understanding speech choosing words to express thoughts and feelings
temporal lobe association areas interpret complex sensory experiences understanding speech or reading
occipital lobe association areas analyze and combine visual images with other sensory experiences
insula translating sensory information into proper emotional responses
dominant hemisphere language skills of speech writing reading verbal analytical and computerization skills
nondominant hemispherere nonverbal tasks motor tasks understanding and interpreting musical and visual patterns provides emotional and intuitive thought processes
basal nuclei sometimes called basal ganglia mases of grey matter deep within cerebral hemispheres
parkinson disease neurons degenerate in the substantia nigra which produces the neurotransmitter dopamine
limbic system consist of several structures in various parts of the brain including diencephalon
hyupothalamus maintains homeostasis by regulating visceral activities such as heart rate blood pressure body temperature water and electrolyte balance
thalamus gateway for sensory impulses ascending to cerebral cortex receives all sensory impulses
Created by: Jenfaith
 

 



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