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The Skeletal System

Part Uno

Functions of bone tissue and the skeletal system Supports, protects, aids in movement, mineral homeostasis, blood cell production, stores fat
Long bone greater in length than width EX: leg and arm
Short bones nearly equal in length and width EX: wrist and ankle
Flat bones thin and flat EX: scapula
Irregular bones complex shapes EX: vertebrae and facial bones
Diaphysis long cylindrical main portion of the bone
Epiphysis distal and proximal ends of the bone
Metaphysis the region where the diaphysis and epiphysis join
Epiphyseal plate growth plate are in growing bone where a layer of hyaline cartilage allows the bone to grow in length.
Articular cartilage thin layer of hyaline cartilage covering the part of the epiphysis where the bone forms an articulation or joint with another bone. Reduces friction and absorbs shock.
Periosteum dense irregular connective tissue surrounding the bone surface that a) contains bone forming cells which allow the bone to grow in diameter b) protects c) assists in fracture repair d) nourish e) attachment point for tendons and ligaments
Medullary cavity Hollow cylindrical space within the diaphysis that contains fatty yellow bone marrow in adults
Endosteum lines the medullary cavity
4 major types of bone cells osteogenic- cell division; osteoblasts- bone building cells; octeocytes- mature and controlling bone cells; osteoclasts- break down bone and found in the endosteum
Compact bone 80%; strongest; diaphysis; arranged in repeating structuralunits called osteons
Osteons rings of hard calcified concentric matrix
Spongy bone 20%; short bone; flat bone; irregular bone, epiphysis of long bone, internal medullary cavity; lighter; red bone marrow
Growth hormones hGH (human growth hormones); pituitary gland
Partial fracture incomplete break, crack
Complete fracture bone is broken into 2 or more pieces
Closed fracture does not break through the skin
Open fracture broken ends of the bone protrudes through skin
Steps of bone repair Phagocytes remove dead bone tissue; Chrondroblasts make fibrocartilage at the fracture site to bridge the broken ends; Osteoblasts convert the fibrocartilage to spongy bone tissue; remodeled when osteoclasts remove dead portion and spongy becomes compact
Bone stores __% of body's calcium 99
___ regulates calcium exchange between blood and bone PTH (parathyroid hormone)
Created by: Chickadee.18