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Lymphatic System

Human Anatomy & Physiology Chapter 22: Lymphatic and Immune System

What's resistance? Aka immunity, ability to ward off disease or damage
What are the organs of the lymphatic system? Spleen, tonsils, appendix, thymus, lymphatic capillaries, lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, lymph trunks, lymph ducts, red bone marrow
What are the functions of the lymphatic system? Drain excess interstitial fluid, transport dietary lipids, and carry out immune responses
What is lymph? colorless interstitial fluid confined in lymphatic vessels and flowing through the lymphatic system until it is returned to the blood
What's the chemical composition of lymph? Similar to blood plasma except it also has white blood cells
What are the primary lymphatic organs? Red bone marrow, thymus
What are the secondary lymphatic organs? Spleen, lymph nodes, lymphatic nodules
What makes lymphatic organs primary? They are the sites where cells become immunocompetent
What is the function of the thymus gland? Site of T cell maturation
What is the function of the lymph nodes? Sites of proliferation of B cells and T cells. Filter lymph, store lymphocytes.
What are the functions of the spleen? Site where platelets are stored and B cells and T cells carry out immune functions and macrophages destroy blood-borne pathogens and worn-out cells by phagocytosis
What are lymphatic nodules? lymphatic tissue scattered throughout the mucosa of the gastrointestinal, respiratory, urinary, and reproductive tracts
What does MALT stand for? Mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue
What is the function of the tonsils? Participate in immune responses against inhaled or ingested foreign substances
What are the two types of immunity? Innate immunity and Adaptive Immunity
What is the first line of defense? Skin and mucous membranes
What is the second line of defense? Internal antimicrobial substances, phagocytes, natural killer cells, inflammation, and fever
What is the function of interferons? Prevent viral infection
Release of antibodies from plasma cells is an example of what? Specific immune response
What provides cell-mediated immunity? Cytotoxic T-cells
What effect does histamine have on bronchioles? Constriction
What does Boyle's Law state? At a constant temperature, the volume of a gas varies inversely with the pressure.
How are oxygen and carbon dioxide exchanged in the lungs and through all cell membranes? Diffusion
When does respiratory acidosis occur? When CO2 concentration is too high in blood
What is the function of natural killer cells? Attack any body cells that display abnormal or unusual plasma membrane proteins
What is the function of phagocytes? Ingest microbes or other particles such as cellular debris
What type of leukocytes are macrophages, B and T cells? Lymphcytes
What are the four signs of inflammation? Redness, pain, heat, and swelling
What are the benefits of inflammation? Disposes microbes/pathogens, prevents their spread, prepares for repair, activates immune system, delivers oxygen and nutrients and repair cells and molecules, dilutes toxin, & assists with drug delivery
What is pus? Liquid product of inflammation containing leukocytes or their remains and debris of dead cells
What is the characteristic of adaptive (specific) immune system? It adapts or adjusts to handle a specific microbe. It involves T cells and B cells. Memory for most previously encountered antigens so a 2nd encounter prompts more rapid, vigorous response
What are the two types of immune response of the adaptive system? Cell-mediated immunity and antibody-mediated immunity
What's clonal selection? Process by which a lymphocyte proliferates (divides) and differentiates (forms more highly specialized cells) in response to a specific antigen. The result is a population of identical clones that can recognize the same specific antigen
What's an antigen? (Ag) Antibody generator. Substance with immunogenicity (ability to provoke an immune response) and reactivity (ability to react with the antibodies or cells that result from the immune response)
What is a hapten? Smaller substance with reactivity but without immunogenicity; it can only stimulate an immune response only if it is attached to a larger carrier molecule
What's the difference between a complete antigen and a hapten? Give an example. A complete antigen has both reactivity and immunogenicity; a hapten has only reactivity. The lipid toxin in poison ivy is a hapten that triggers an immune response after combining with body protein
What is MHC antigen? Major histocompatibility complex antigen. Surface proteins on white blood cells & other nucleated cells that are unique for each person; used to type tissues and help prevent rejection of transplanted tissues. Aka human leukocyte antigens
What is the functions of antigen presenting cells and name few? Lymphocyte that begins development in primary lymphatic organs and completes it in red bone marrow
What are the cells of the adaptive immunity? T and B cells
What are the different types of T cells? Cytotoxic T cell (CD8 T), Helper T cell (CD4 T), Memory cytotoxic T cell
How are infected cells eliminated by cytotoxic T cells? Release granzymes that induce apoptosis, perofrin that forms channels to cause cytolysis, granulysin that destroys microbes, lymphotoxin that destroys target cell DNAl, gamma-interfon that attracts macrophages and increases their phagocytic activity, and
What are B cells? Lymphocyte that begins development in primary lymphatic organs and completes it in RBM
What are plasma cells and how are they produced? Cell that develops from a B cell (lymphocyte) and produces antibodies
What are antibodies? Protein produced by plasma cells in response to a specific antigen; the antibody combines with the antigen to neutralize, inhibit, or destroy it. Aka immunoglobin (Ig)
What are the functions of antibodies? Neutralize antigen, immobilize bacteria, agglutinating and precipitating antigen, activating complement, enhancing phagocytosis
How are monoclonal antibodies produced? Scientists fuse B cells with tumor cells that grow easily & proliferate endlessly. The resulting hybrid cell is a hybridoma, which is a long-term source of identical antibodies called monoclonal antibodies
What's the difference between natural acquired active and passive immunity and examples. Active: exposure to antifen. Passive: breastmilk antibodies. Artificial: Vaccination=active, Antibiotics=passive,
What's hypersensitivity and how does it occur? Overreaction to an allergen that results in pathological changes in tissues. AKA allergy
What are allergens and give examples? Antigen that provokes a hypersensitivity reaction. Pollen, peanut butter, shellfish
What is anaphylactic shock? Allergic reaction that occurs within a few minutes after a person sensitized to an allergen is re-exposed to it. Wheezing and shortness of breath as airways constrict are usually accompanied by shock due to vasodilation and fluid loss from blood
What's delayed hypersensitivity? A cell-mediated response to allergen takes a few days to occur
Created by: leprajacqu