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Chapter 12

hearing, senses

General senses Receptors that widely distributed throughout the body skin various organs and joints
Special senses Specialized receptors confined to structures in the head eyes ears nose and mouth
Sensory receptors Specialized cells or multicellular structures that collect information from the environment
Sensation A feeling that occurs when brain becomes aware of sensory impulse
Perception A person view of the stimulus the way the brain interprets the information
Chemoreceptors Respond to changes in chemical condition
Pain receptors (noiceptors) Respond to chemicals release during tissue damage
Thermoreceptors Respond to changes in temperature
Mechanorecptors Respond to mechanical forces (touch stretch pressure)
Photoreceptors Respond to light
Sensory impulses Stimulation of receptor causes local change in its receptor potential
Projection process in which the brain projects the sensation back to the appertaining source it allows a person to pinpoint the region of stimulation
Sensory adaptations Ability to ignore unimportant stimuli involves a decrease response to particular stimulus from receptors peripheral adaptation or along the cns pathways leading to the cerebral cortex central adaptation
Exteroceptive senses Senses associated with body surface such as touch pressure temperature and pain
Visceroceptive senses Associated with changes in viscera such as blood pressure stretching blood vessels and ingestion of a meal
Proprioceptive senses Associated with changes in muscles and tendons such as joints
Free nerve endings Common in epithelial tissues simplest receptors sense itching
Tactile Aboundant in hairless portions of skin and lips detect fine touch and texture
Lamellated Common in deeper subcutaneous tissue tendons and ligaments detect heavy pressure and vibrations
Warm receptors Sensitive to temperature above 25c 77f
Cold receptors Sensitive to temperatures between 10c and 20c 50f
Pain receptors respond to temperatures below 10c respond to temperatures above 45c
free nerve endings widely distributed
visceral pain pain receptors are the only receptors in viscera whose stimulation produces sensations
thalamus allows person to be aware of pain
cerebral cortex judges intensity of pain localized source of pain produces emotional and motor responses to pain
pain inhibiting substances enkephalins serotonin endorphins
mechanoreceptors send information to spinal cord and CNS about body position and length and tension of muscles
main kinds of proprioceptors pacinian corpuscles in joints muscle spindles in skeletal muscles golgi tendon organs in tendons concedered to be stretch receptors
receptors in internal organs convey information that includes the sense of fullness after eating a meal as well as the discomfort of intestinal gas and the pain that signals a heart attack
sensory receptors are within complex sensory organs in the head smell in olfactory organs taste in taste buds hearing and equilibrium in ears sight in eyes
mixed up senses synesthesia brain interprets a stimulus from one sense as coming from another the sunset was salty from stroke or birth defect
olfactory receptors chemoreceptors respond to chemicals dissolved in liquids
olfactory organs contain olfactory receptor cells and supporting epithelial cells cover parts of nasal cavity superior nasal conchae and a portion of the nasal septum
olfactory code hypothesis odor that is stimulated by distinct set of receptors cells and its associated receptors proteins
taste buds organs of taste located on papillae of tongue
taste receptors chemoreceptors taste cells modified epithelial cells that fuction as receptors
taste hairs microvilli that protrude from taste cells through pores of taste buds sensitive parts of taste cells
five taste sensations sweet- carbohydrates sour-acids salty-salts bitter-organic compounds and umami-amino acids
ear organ of hearing outer external middle ear and inner internal ear
auricle collects sound waves
external acoustic meatus tunnel lined with coterminous glands carries sound to tympanic membnrane
tympanic membrane vibrates in respond to sound waves ear drum
tympanic cavity cavity air filled space in temporal bone
auditory ossicles vibrate in response to tympanic membrane
oval window opening in wall of tympanic cavity spates vibrations against it to move fluids in inner ear
tympanic reflex muscle contractions that occur during loud sounds to tighten bridge of auditory ossicles
Created by: Jenfaith