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Muscles of Mastication

Name the four muscles of mastication: Masseter, Temporalis, Medial Pterygoid, Lateral Pterygoid
Name the 8 bony landmarks for the muscles of mastication: Temporal fossa, coronoid process, ramus, zygomatic arch, sphenoid bone, palatine bone, maxillary tuberosity, condyle
What part of the sphenoid bone is a bony landmark for the muscles of mastication? Greater wing (medial and lateral pterygoid plate)
What nerve are the muscles of mastication innervated by? V3 of the trigeminal nerve
What branch are the muscles embriologically derived from? 1st branchial arch
Which muscle(s) are involved with elevation of the mandible? Masseter, temporalis, medial pterygoid
Which muscle(s) are involved with protrusion or depression? Lateral pterygoid
Which muscle arises from two heads? Masseter
What are the two heads of the masseter muscle called? Deep head and superficial head of the masseter
What is the origin and insertion of the superficial head of the masseter? Origin- Posterior 1/3 and medial surface of the zygomatic arch Insertion- Lateral surface of ramus and angle of mandible
What is the origin and insertion of the deep head of the masseter? Origin- Zygomatic process of the maxilla and anterior 2/3 of the lower border of the zygomatic arch Insertion- Lateral surface of ramus and angle of mandible
Action of the masseter muscle: Elevate the angle of the mandible
Action of the temporalis muscle: Elevates the coronoid process and retracts the jaw
What is the origin and insertion of the temporalis muscle? Origin- temporal fossa of parietal and frontal bones; below the superior temporal line and from temporal fascia Insertion- coronoid process and anterior border of the ramus
Action of the internal (medial) pterygoid muscle: Elevate the angle of the jaw and sideways movement
What is the origin and insertion of the internal (medial) pterygoid muscle? Origin- medial surface of lateral pterygoid plate and tuberosity of maxillary bone. Insertion- medial surface of ramus and angle of mandible
Which muscle involves drawing the condyles of the mandible forward resulting in the TMJ opening? External (lateral) pterygoid muscle
What are the two groups of muscles that have an influence on the movement of the mandible? Suprahyoid muscles and muscles of mastication
Which muscles are considered accessory muscles to the mandible? Geniohyoid, mylohyoid, digastric
Which group of muscles assist the lateral pterygoid muscles in depressing the mandible? Suprahyoid muscles
Which group of muscles assist the temporalis muscles in retraction? Suprahyoid muscles
Which of the suprahyoid muscles does not directly influence the mandible? Stylohyoid
What needs to happen in order for the suprahyoids to depress the jaw? The infrahyoids must stabilize the hyoid bone in a downward position.
The vertical position of the hyoid bone is determined by what? Contraction of the muscles attached to its superior and inferior borders.
What structres do the infrahyoid muslces extend down to? From the hyoid bone to the clavicle and sternum
What are the three pairs of basic movements of the mandible? elevation and depression/protrustion and retraction/right and left lateral shift
What is the jaw held in position by? A balance between the depressor and elevator muscles (except in occlusion)
Name the two movements that require relaxation of the suprahyoids: Elevation and protrusion
Name the two movements that require contraction of the lateral pterygoid: Depression and protrusion
Name the two movements that require relaxation of the lateral pterygoid: Retraction and elevation
When the lateral pterygoids and suprahyoids contract to depress the mandible, there must be relaxation of which muscles? Masseter, temporalis, and medial pterygoid
Created by: alnorthrop1234



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