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Anatomy Exam 2

The Nervous System

3 main processes the nervous system is involved in 1. receives information, 2. stores/processes information, 3. effects interactions and maintains homeostasis
cell body receives and processes information, makes a decision
axon hillock part of cell body of a neuron that connects to axon
initial segment part of an axon where action potentials are initiated
axon all or nothing, send a signal through axon to synaptic cell
axon terminal releases the electrical impulse of the presynaptic cell
synaptic knob Neurotransmitter is released into the synapse from vesicles as a neuron reaches the synaptic knob
myelin sheath a fatty white substance that forms an electrical insulating layer and surrounds the axon, increases speed of electrical signal
synapse (noun) definition a junction between 2 nerve cell bodies, consisting of a minute gap across which impulses pass by diffusion of a Neurotransmitter
unipolar neurons one process is attached to the nerve cell body (in our sensory neurons)
bipolar neurons two processes are coming out of the soma
multipolar neurons more than two processes are coming out of the soma, common in our body (motor neurons)
2 major components of nervous system WITHIN the Central Nervous System spinal cord and brain
a bundle of axons in the CNS are called... fiber tracts
a bundle of axons in the PNS are called... nerves
a group of nerve cell bodies in the CNS is called... nuclei
a collection of nerve cell bodies in the PNS is called... gaglia
astrocytes (location and function) location: wrapped around blood vessels, function: help maintain extracellular enviornment
ependymal cells (location and function) location: lines cavities, function: cilia circulates fluid
microglial cells (location and function) location: brain and spinal cord, function, digest things that dont belong, disposal system
oligodendrocytes (location and function) location: around axons, function: speed up signal down axon
satellite cells (location and function) location: PNS function: support and nuture neurons, supply nutrients
schwann cells (location and function) location: PNS, function: produce a lipid substance that wraps around an axon, create myelinate sheath
formal name for the sensory nervous system afferent, bringing information toward central nervous system
formal name for the motor nervous system efferent, bringing information away from central nervous system
what kind of signal passes down the length of the axon? electrical signal
what is meant by the term 'potential' in terms of cells? the result of charge differences across membranes, measured in voltage
is the charge inside a cell more or less negative than outside the cell? more negative inside the cell
name of large molecules that stay inside the cell and dont leave. what effect do they have on membrane potential? DNA and cell protein, make inside the cell negative
in the sodium potassium pump, what direction does each ion travel? NA+ pumped out, K+ pumped in
is ATP required for the sodium potassium pump to work? what kind of transport is used? yes ATP, active transport
what is the ratio of sodium and potassium ions pumped across the membrane? 2 K+ and 3 Na+
sodium and potassium ions are both positive. Why does pumping them influence the membrane potential? because pumping them makes it more negative since its going against the concentration gradient.
Do leak channels require ATP? What kind of transport is used? no ATP, Facilitated diffusion because need help of protein channel
Na+ and K+ leak channels allow K+ to leak back out, and Na+ to leak back in
what is the value of the typical resting potential? (Vr) -70 mV
resting membrane potential difference in charges inside vs outside (-70 mV)
what is the equilibrium potential for K+? -90 mV
what is the equilibrium potential for Na+? +66 mV
K+ equilibrium potential chemically K+ wants to go out, electrically K+ wants to stay in
Na+ equilibrium potential chemically Na+ wants to leak in, electrically Na+ also wants to leak in
why is Vr so much closer to the equilibrium potential of K+ and not Na+? Vr = -70 because cell membrane is a lot leakier to potassium, and membrane with leak channels is permeable to potassium
3 kinds of gated channels mechanically, chemically, voltage
mechanically gated channels (what causes it to open and does it require ATP) No ATP, opens by membrane stretch by physical distortion
chemically gated channels (what causes it to open and does it require ATP) No ATP, opens by chemical ligands - molecule binds with channel
voltage gated channels (what causes it to open and does it require ATP) No ATP, opens by threshold voltage
Graded Potential (definition, and where in neuron is it located?) getting more positive, but not reaching threshold. located in dendrites and NCB's
what machinery allows for graded potentials? ligand-gated ion channel proteins
when threshold is reached, what opens to begin the action potential? the sodium channels open when voltage reaches threshold
what is threshold and what happens when it is reached? threshold is the limit at which the neuron needs to exceed/hit in order for an action potential to be initiated
refractory period a period immediately following stimulation during which a nerve or muscle is unresponsive to further stimulation
absolute refractory period point at which action potentials cant come through again
relative refractory period point at which action potentials can come through, but it is difficult
what 3 factors can influence speed of an action potential? diameter, temperature, myelination
what structure surrounds the axon of some neurons? what name is given to this kind of movement of the action potential? myelinated sheath, satitory propagation = movement from node to node
saltatory propagation action potentials down myelinated axons jump from node to node
continuous propagation unmyelinated axons
synapse communication space between the 2 neurons
what kind of cell junction allows for an electrical synapse? gap junction , because there is a direct travel of ions through a tube between two cells
what is one advantage of an electrical synapse? fast and bidirectional
what is one disadvantage of an electrical synapse? signal is diminished
what kind of channels open in response to action potential in the synaptic knob, and what happens when it opens? voltage gated Ca+ channels open, Ca+ flows into the cell and causes synaptic vesicles to migrate down and merge with membrane, then allows release of NT into the synaptic cleft
what kind of transport do neurotransmitters use to cross the cell membrane? vesicular transport - exocytosis (moving out of)
excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSP's) opening chemically gated sodium channel, sodium flows in, depolarizes, gets us closer to threshold
inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSP's) opening of chemically gated potassium channels, moves us away from threshold
what are 3 mechanisms for removing NT from the synapse? degrade, diffuse, reuptake
Chemically gated potassium channel (location in neuron) dendrites, NCB's, axon
voltage gated calcium channel (location in neuron) synaptic knob
sodium potassium pump (location in neuron) axon
potassium leak channel (location in neuron) axon
action potentials (location in neuron) axon
graded potentials (location in neuron) dendrites and NCB's
voltage gated channels (location in neuron) axon
3 basic germ layers extoderm (outside), mesoderm (middle), endoderm (inside)
CNS gray and white matter (why gray and white?) gray = dendrites don't get myelinated so they remain gray, white = myelin sheaths give or axons the white color
location of gray and white matter in brain vs spinal cord in brain, cerebral cortex is gray around outside and the fiber tracts are white on the inside, in spinal cord, all gray matter is deep to the white matter
the cerebrum consciousness awareness of sensations, motor decisions, personality, ability to make decisions
cortex (location) outer layer of the cerebrum
basal nuclei (function) direct activities at the subconscious level (initiation and termination of movement, ex. holding hand steady)
gyris and sulci gyrus are folds, sulci are grooves
primary somatosensory cortex biggest parts = hands, face,lips (facial expressions, speech, sound production)
primary motor cortex fine motor control, part of the brain that starts an action potential that then causes motor events (ex: moving thumb)
hippocampus in cerebrum, involved in memory
commissure connects the left and right hemispheres in brain
corpus callosum allows our left and right hemispheres to communicate
diencephalon made of thalamus, major relay center for sensory information
hypothalamus master control center, involved in homeostasis, emotion, hunger, appetite, signals the pituitary gland
epithalamus contains the pineal gland which produces melatonin - regulates our sleep/wake cycle
cerebellum important in movement, allows smooth movement to occur, minimizes motor errors
medulla oblongata basic life support! centers for cardiovascular and respiratory rhythmicity, homeostasis
pons bridge,ascending and descending tracts, sending information from nerves and spinal cord up to our brain, our brain sends decisions down
how do we protect our CNS (brain and spinal cord) meninges! layer of CT (dense irregular) that surrounds the brain and spinal cord
the Autonomic nervous system (ANS) has only WHAT TYPE OF NEURONS visceral motor neurons
somatic motor system voluntary, nuclei are located in anterior gray horn of spinal cord, 1 neuron per circuit, NT released at end of axon is always acetylcholine
autonomic nervous system involuntary, nuclei are located in spinal for in lateral gray horn, 2 neurons per circuit, includes ganglia,
2 types of autonomic divisions (how body maintains homeostasis) sympathetic division, parasympathetic division
sympathetic division prepares for action, coming out of spinal cord
parasympathetic division promotes a restful state (except digestion), craniosacral - coming out of the brain
4 types of spinal nerve plexuses cervical plexus, brachial plexus, lumbar plexus, sacral plexus
plexus definition way of safely getting axons from one nerve to another nerve
sensory receptors take information/energy and change the stimulus into an action potential
why do people not realize they smell? sensory adaptation! they stop perceiving some sort of stimulus
mechanoreceptors gives us our lightest touch, discriminating touches, vibration and deep pressure, can feel hair follicles move
receptive fields on finger tips have many sensory receptors, easy to tell 1 touch from 2
baroreceptors (type of mechanoreceptor), respond to pressure changes in arteries and veins
proprioreceptors respond to muscle/tendon stretch
nocireceptors pain receptors
thermoreceptors temperature receptors
general chemoreceptors respond to chemicals
the special senses: olfaction sense of smell, olfactory neurons are embedded in our nostrils
the special senses: gustation the tongue and taste buds, chemicals dissolve in our saliva and then encounter our taste buds where there are receptors
lacrimal gland what creates tears and constant moisture, protects from bacteria
3 layers of the eye fibrous layer (outermost), vascular layer (middle), neural layer (innermost)
fibrous layer (includes what structures?) outermost layer of eye, scream cornea
vascular layer (includes what structures?) middle layer of eye, iris, choroid, cilliary body
neural layer (includes what structures?) innermost layer of eye, retina
what is the area of best vision? fovea
lens does the focusing for us
rods and cones rods are in our peripheral vision and are nighttime receptors, cones are in our central vision and allow us to see colors
2 types of eye muscles dialater muscles and constrictor muscles
rhodopsin pigment in rods
how can we adapt to different light levels? rhodopsin molecule breaks down when lint hits it because it is bombarded with photons, can be slowly rebuilt with ATP
do we adapt to light or dark faster? why? light. because in order to see in lower light levels, more rhodopsin is needed which takes awhile to regenerate
pitch: __________, volume: ____________ pitch: frequency, volume: amplitude
color vision 3 cone types red cones, blue cones, green cones
Created by: loladell