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Ch 5 Integumentary

Skin, Hair,Nails,Glands(sweat,oil),Sensory receptors

QuestionAnswer
Components of the Integumentary Sys? Skin, Hair, Nails, Glands (oil, sweat), Sensory receptors
3 parts of skin? Epidermis, Dermis, Subcutaneous layer (hypodermis/SubQ)
The skin is also known as ? Cutaneous Membrane
Other than sweat, which other responses assist with thermoregulation? a) Blood vessels near the skin can dilate, increasing blood flow and heat loss
Vitamin D, after activation in the skin converts to calcitriol by enzymes in the liver and kidneys. People in northern climates who may not get adequate sun, can become deficient in vit D. What mineral would be especially affected by this? c) Calcium
Characteristics of Melanocytes? BLACK cells, produce pigment (MELANIN), CLUSTER over nuclei of epidermal cells for UV light ray protection,
About 90% of the cells of the epidermis are of which type? Keratinocytes
Two types of EPIdermis? Thin Skin (hairy): covers all body regions except the palms, palmar surfaces of digits, and soles Thick Skin (hairless) (covers the fingertips, palms, and soles).
5 layers of the Epidermis (Thick Skin) 1). Stratum Basale 2). Stratum Spinosum 3). Stratum Granulosum 4). Stratum Lucidum 5). Stratum Corneum
Name and describe Deep (Dermis) Wound Healing Proliferative Phase (extensive growth of epithelial cells under scab) Maturation Phase (scab sloughs off, epidermis restored to normal thickness)
Nail 1. Free edge 2. Nail body (plate) 3.Lunula 3. Eponychium (cuticle) 4. Nail root
The eponychium is the _________ of the nail. Cuticle
Actual growth of the nail occurs in the . Nail matrix
Functions of skin (6) 1. Thermoregulation 2. Blood reservoir 3. Protection 4. Cutaneous sensations 5. Excretion and absorption 6. Synthesis of vitamin D
First degree burn Epidermis only Example: Sunburn
Second degree burn Epidermis and part of dermis - blister and pain
Third degree burn Epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous fat destroyed - marble white to charred mahogany appearance - skin grafting may be necessary GRANULATION TISSUE
Dermis MIDDLE layer of Cutaneous Membrane: Dense irregular connective tissue (contains collagen and elastin fibers). VASCULAR, nerves, glands and hair follicles
Is the dermis thicker in men or in women or the same? The dermis layer is thicker in men than woman
Epidermal Ridges (fingerprints and footprints) FINGERPRINTS made by SWEAT -downward projects of epidermis to dermis -traction and touch (tactile) sensitivity
Scar Tissue: FIBROSIS Normal. Raised/elevated scar that often forms after deep wound healing
Gland for EMOTIONAL SWEATING (stress, sex, or strong emotion) Apocrine Glands (the APE that shows up at a job interview!)
What do Melanocytes produce? Melanin Pigment
What are born in the Stratum Basale? Keratinocytes and Melanocytes
Basic keratinocytes and melanocytes are found where? Stratum Basale
What is the purpose of Keratinocytes? Most numerous skin cell. Contains keratin, a tough protein that protects against abrasion. Also make lamellar granules to make us waterproof.
Why are burns so harmful to our bodies? DEHYDRATION & INFECTION (sepsis)
Name the three burn degrees and the layers affected. 1st: Epidermis layer 2nd: Epidermis and part of the Dermis layer 3rd: Epidermis, Dermis, and Subcutaneous fat is destroyed. GRAFT NECESSARY.
What are the two sweat glands called? Epocrine and Apocrine
Apocrine glands are located where? Armpit, groin, nipples, breast, and beard
What causes body odor to occur from apocrine glands? Milky sweat that mixes with skin bacteria creates BODY ODOR = the ape!
What does ear wax do? Waterproofs the ear canal and prevents bacteria and fungi from entering cells
Is ear wax genetic? YES
What are the ceruminous glands? Modified sweat glands in external ear - MAKE cerumen (earwax)
Cerumen EARWAX: lubricating secretion that combines with Sebaceous secretion. Waterproofs ear and protects it from bacterial infection.
What is a nail? Dead, keratinized epidermal cells that are clear coverings over digits
What are the purposes of the nail? Protect the ends of the fingers and toes Support via counter-pressure Allow us to grasp and manipulate objects Grooming
How many layers are in the Epidermal Strata? 5 layers
What layer of the Epidermal stratus is "callus like" Stratum Corneum ('cornfield')
Why is the CORNEUM layer shed off? It is dead and has no nucleus or any organelles
Where is the stratum LUCIDUM found on the body? fingertips, palms of hands, soles of feet
Characteristics of the lucidum layer of the epidermis. CLEAR layer, only in thick skin (palm and sole), tough!
Name the 5 layers of the Epidermal strata "Boy Saw Girl Look Crazy" Basale - basement Spinosum - spiny Granulosum - granules Lucidum - lucid Corneum - callus like corn means horn
What is the MOST COMMON Non-Melanoma skin cancer? Basal cell carcinoma - doesn't usually metastasize
Two types of Non-Melanoma skin cancer. Basal cell carcinoma (MC) Squamous cell carcinoma (2nd mc)
Of the two NON -melanoma skin cancers, which will METASTASIZE Squamous cell carcinoma
What causes MELANOMA skin cancer? Excessive exposure to UV radiation mostly.
Which form of melanoma skin cancer is the MOST deadly? Melanocyte cancer = MELANOMA fatal in months - metastasizes rapidly
An INHERITED inability to produce melanin ? Albinism - has melanocytes but they don't make melanin (broken melanocytes)
What is Partial or complete loss of melanocytes from PATCHES of skin ? Vitiligo
Tactile receptor cells for touch and intraepidermal macrophages for immunity are the other cell types in the epidermis? Keratinocytes and Melanocytes
Which type of epithelium makes up the EPIDERMIS? Keratinized stratified squamous
Hornlike cells that make up 90% of epidermis? KERATINOCYTES - 90!
Produce protein keratin (tough protein) and lamellar granules (waterproofing) Keratinocytes
Tough, fibrous PROTEIN protects skin and underlying tissues from abrasions, heat, infection ? Keratin (the protein)
Produce LAMELLAR GRANULES Keratinocytes. LG's waterproof the skin.
Water-repellant sealant? LAMELLAR GRANULES made by keratinocytes
Decreases water entry/exit? Keratinocytes using lamellar granules that waterproof the skin
Abrasions and minor burns? EPIDERMIS wound healing
Affects only the epidermis? Abrasion or minor scrape (SHALLOW WOUND)
Basal cells break contact with the basement membrane and migrate towards one another as a sheet during? During EPIDERMIS wound healing, basal cells stop due to CONTACT INHIBITION! Build up from there.
Skin color due to LACK of oxygen Cyanotic Bluish
Skin color due to build up of bilirubin (liver) Jaundiced Yellow
Heat, exposure, over exertion, INFECTION skin color Erythematous Redness
Skin color of SHOCK or ANEMIA Pallor Pale
Contact inhibition happens during? Epidermal wound healing - basal cells that were moving towards each other finally meet and start building upward, filling in wound
EPIDERMAL GROWTH factor Epidermal wound healing
Stimulates basal stem cells to divide and build new strata, thickening the epidermis? Epidermal wound healing - EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR
What is the process when an epidermal wound begins the healing process, basal cells migrate away from the basement membrane. enlarge, and migrate to fill in the wound? CONTACT INHIBITION - stop when contact
TATTOO layer of skin? Dermis
Pigment gets TRAPPED where long term when getting a tattoo ? Fibroblasts
Define medical term for "stretch mark" and describe: STRIAE – internal scarring – damage to DERMIS due to stretching
Give example of tension lines: Lines of CLEAVAGE for surgical procedures
Why are tension lines important? Predominate direction of underlying collagen fibers and are important during surgical procedures
Where are melanin pigment granules produced and exported? Produced and exported by MELANOCYTES in the stratum basale (BASEMENT)
Carotene is a precursor to this vitamin A
Which important vitamin does NOT require melanin? D
What is the medical term and definition for pressure ulcers? DECUBITUS ulcers; Constant deficiency of blood flow to tissues
Flattened keratinocytes undergoing apoptosis As move further away from nutritive dermal blood vessels, begin to die as pressed towards surface TRANSITION layer between living and dying cells - where programmed cell death (APOTOSIS) occurs = stratum GRANULOSUM! (middle age)
Keratinocytes produce lamellar granules (Rain - X or waterproofing) at this layer Stratum granulosum
THORN-like; flattened top/superficial layers adds STRENGTH and flexibility to skin ? Stratum Spinosum
The pigment-producing cells of the epidermis (MELANOCYTES) are located in which layer? Stratum basale
Which layer marks the TRANSITION between metabolically active cells of lower layers and the dead layers of keratinocytes of the upper layers. Stratum granulosum
What is the process of keratinization? When cells are pushed to the surface obtaining more and more keratin and die off (apoptosis)
What is PSORIASIS and how long do these psoriatic keratinocytes live? Abnormal keratin growth ; Causes flaky silvery scales at skin surface; Typically found in the knees, elbow, and scalp; shed in 7-10 days vs. Normal 4-6 weeks
Scar tissue: KELOID Extends BEYOND normal boundaries into surrounding tissues
Created by: CutlerSUFA16N