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A&P1 - Chapter 14

The Brain and Cranial Nerves

The adult human brain contains almost ____ of the body's neural tissue 97%
During embryonic development, which of the following secondary brain vesicles will form the cerebrum? telencephon
What are the main divisions of the adult brain? cerebrum, diencephalon, midbrain and pons NOT the prosencephalon
The floor of the diencephalon is formed by the hypothalamus
Autonomic centers that control blood pressure, heart rate, and digestion are located in the medulla oblongata
Ependymal cells work to surround the capillaries of the choroid plexus, secrete CSF into the ventricles, remove waste products from the CSF and adjust the composition of the CSF
A brain hemorrhage is life-threatening because neurological changes occur, areas of brain won't receive blood, person can loose consciousness and the pressure increase within the space can distort and potentially damage brain tissue
Describe cerebrospinal fluid provides cushioning for delicate neural tissue, provides buoyant support for the brain, acts as a transport medium for nutrients and acts as a transport medium for waste products
The cells that cover the outer surfaces of CNS capillary endothelial cells are the astrocytes
What are the functions of the thalamus? processes sensory info and relays it to the cerebrum
The ____ filters and relays sensory info to the cerebral cortex thalamus
Damage to the preoptic area of the hypothalamus leads to which problem? reduced ability to regulate body temp
Joe begins to experience mood swings and disturbed thirst and hunger. Imaging studies indicate that a brain tumor is the likely cause of these disorders. In what part of the brain is the tumor most likely located? hypothalamus
Describe the limbic system amygolaloidbody, cingulate gyrus, hippocampus, and fornix NOT globus palliclus
The ____ is important in storage and recall of new long-term memories hippocampus
Terry suffers from dissociation of memories from their emotional content as the result of an automobile accident. What system of the brain is probably damged? the limbic system
Damage to the substantia nigra causes a decrease in the neurotransmitter dopamine. This causes a gradual, generalized increase in muscle tone, which is the main symptom of Parkinson's disease
The primary motor cortex is the surface of the precentral gyrus
The sense of taste projects to the gustatory cortex located in the _____ and ____ insula, frontal lobe
The corpus callosum is composed of commissural fibers
The surface of the postcentral gyrus contains the ____ cortex primary sensory
The visual cortex is located in the occipital lobe
The auditory cortex is located in the temporal lobe
Parkinson's disease is the result of inadequate production of dopamine by substania nigra neurons
After suffering a stroke, Mary finds that she cannot move her right arm. This would suggest that the stroke damage is in the area of the _____ lobe left
After suffering a blow to the back of the head, Phil loses his vision. The blow probably caused damage to the occipital lobe
Integrative centers of the brain do what? receive info from many sensory association areas, can impact higher intellectual functions, direct motor activities and include the Wernicke's area
Which cerebral area is involved with judgment and predictive abilities? prefrontal cortex
The highest levels of info processing occur in the cerebrum
If the corpus callsum is surgically cut, what could happen? the two cerebral hemispheres operate independently, symptoms of the disconnection syndrome appear, objects touched by the left hand are recognized but not verbally identified, & conscious decisions are made without regard to sensations from the left side
Bob is struck on the left side of the head and is knocked unconscious. When he recovers consciousness, he can hear individual words, but cannot understand the meaning of phrases or sentences. This implies damage to his general interpretive area
Damage to the premotor cortex of the frontal lobe would interfere with the ability to play the piano
____ is a temporary cerebral disorder accompanied by abnormal movements, unusual sensations and/or inappropriate behavior A seisure
A9N0 ____ is a printed record of the brain's electrical activity over a period of time electroencephalogram
___ is a disorder affecting the ability to speak or read aphasia
The only sensation that is received directly by the cerebrum is olfaction
Gustatory info reaches the brain by way of cranial nerve IX
____ is a condition resulting from an inflammation of a facial nerve Bell's palsy
Droopy eyelids and double vision can result from injury to the ____ nerve oculomotor
The cranial nerves that innervate the eye muscles are III, IV, and VI
The cranial nerve that has three major branches is the trigeminal
Sensory innervation of the lower teeth and gums is by the ____ nerve mandibular branch of the trigeminal
Difficulty swallowing may be a sign of damage to which cranial nerve(s)? glossopharyngeal and vagus
A reflex that used to assess the sensory function of the trigeminal nerve is the ____ reflex corneal
Which of the cranial nerves is named for the fact that it "wanders", that is, innervates structures throughout the thorax and abdomen? X
Which sensation(s) does the vestibulocochlear nerve carry? hearing and equilibrium
Jean needs to have a tooth in her mandible filled. Her dentist injects a local anesthetic to block pain afferents in one of her cranial nerves. What cranial nerve does the dentist numb? trigeminal
Tic douloureux is a disorder of the maxillary/mandibular branches of nerve V characterized by almost totally debilitating pain, triggered by contact with the lip/tongue and also called trigeminal neurolagia
You suspect your friend has damage to cranial nerve I when he is unable to smell his food
A patient develops a tumor of a cranial nerve that leads to difficulty in speaking from a loss of tongue movement. Which cranial nerve is affected? hypoglossal
What would you associate with damage to the spinal accessory nerve? weakness of the sternocleidmastoid muscle
The patient has the following symptoms: change in vocal tone, problems swallowing, inability to control urination, erratic heart rate and gastric problems. You would identify the problem as being related to the vagus nerve
Use Figure 14-2 Cranial Nerves Identify the structure labeled "1" optic
Use Figure 14-2 Cranial Nerves Identify the structure labeled "9" indundibulum
Use Figure 14-2 Cranial Nerves Identify the structure labeled "3" abducens
Use Figure 14-2 Cranial Nerves What is the function of the nerve labeled "4"? hearing and balance
Use Figure 14-2 Cranial Nerves What is the function of the nerve labeled "5"? visceral sensation and motor control
Use Figure 14-2 Cranial Nerves What is the function of the structure labeled "7"? olfaction
Use Figure 14-2 Cranial Nerves What is the function of the nerve labeled "10"? eye movement
Use Figure 14-2 Cranial Nerves Identify the nerve labeled "11" trigeminal
Use Figure 14-2 Cranial Nerves Identify the nerve labeled "12" facial
The medulla oblongata, pons, and midbrain comprise the brain stem
The folds of the cerebrum are called gyn
In each ventricle is a blood vessel network called the ___ that produces cerebrospinal fluid choroid plexus
Cardiovascular centers located in the ____ adjust the heart rate, the strength of cardiac contractions, and the flow of blood through the peripheral tissues medulla oblongata
The term used to describe the crossing over of a tract to the side of the nervous system opposite to where the axons originated is decussation
The folds of the surface of the cerebrum increase the surface are of the cerebrum
The mesencephalon contains the headquarters of the _____, a specialized component of the reticular formation that controls alertness and attention reticular activating system
Emotions and behavioral drives are associated with the hypothalamus
Stimulation of the ___ within the hypothalamus produces the sensation of hunger feeding center
The ____, a narrow stalk, connects the hypothalamus to the pituitary gland infundibulum
In most cases, the general interpretive center and the speech center are located in the left cerebral hemisphere
The dominant cerebral hemisphere of the brain performs analytical tasks
A person who has difficulty comprehending and using written language suffers from the disorder known as dyslexia
Cortical regions that interpret sensory info or coordinate motor responses are called ___ areas association
The white structure that connects the cerebral hemispheres is the corpus callosum
The optic nerve crosses at the optic chiasm
Created by: jnipper



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