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Anatomy

Brain and Cranial Nerves

TermDefinition
The Brain part of the central nervous system divided into cerebrum, diencephalon, brain stem, and cerebellum
Cerebrum forms the bulk of the brain
Cerebrum functions receives and interprets sensory inputs controls voluntary motor movements involved with cognitive and emotional processing (thinking)
surface of the cerebrum gyri and sulci
gyri (gyrus) elevations or bumps on the brain
sulci (sulcus) grooves of the brain (the deeper grooves are called FISSURE) the deepest groove is the LONGITUDINAL FISSURE (divides the cerebrum into left and right cerebral hemispheres) each cerebral hemisphere is divided into lobes by other sulci and fissures
Major sulci and fissures include the central sulcus, lateral fissure, and parieto-occipital sulcus
central sulcus divides the frontal lobe from the parietal lobe, use a landmark to locate the precentral gyrus and postcentral gyrus
lateral fissure (middle cerebral arteries) separates the frontal and parietal lobes from the temporal lobe
parieto-occipital sulcus separates the parietal lobe from the occipital lobe
gray matter (cerebrum) formed by millions of neuron cell bodies (soma), gray because there is no myelin, locations include cerebral cortex (superficial), basal nuclei (deep-looks like adidas sign), and limbic system (deep)
white matter (cerebrum) formed by axons of neurons, white because of myelin, located deep to the cerebral cortex, surrounds nuclei
Cerebral Cortex (superificial layer of cerebrum) specific regions of the cortex have specific functions, these regions are called functional areas
3 kinds of functional areas motor area, sensory function, and association function
motor areas (cerebral) control voluntary muscular movement, example: primary motor cortex
primary motor function (located: precentral gyrus of frontal lobe) controls contraction of skeletal muscle, specific regions of the precentral gyrus control specific muscles; if right brain damaged then you cant move the left side, opposite goes for the left brain side
sensory areas (cerebral) concerned with awareness of sensation, examples include: primary somatic sensory cortex, and visual cortex
primary somatic sensory cortex or primary somatosensory cortex (located: postcentral gyrus) receives impulses (sensation, pain, pressure, and temperature) from sensory receptors located in the skin and skeletal muscle; specific regions of the postcentral gyrus receive impulses from specific areas of the body; damage: can't feel (right or left)
visual cortex located: occipital lobe receive impulses conveying visual information damage: blindness
association areas (cerebral) involved with integrating functions examples: somatic sensory association area and the speech association areas (Broca's and Wernicke's area)
somatic sensory association area located posterior to the primary somatic sensory cortex involved with the ability to recognize and object by touch damaged: can feel but don't know what you're feeling
Broca's area (motor speech area) above tip of temporal lobe (finger area of boxing glove) located: on left frontal lobe superior to the lateral fissure controls muscles responsible for the production of speech initiates speech damaged: can't speak, knows what to say
Wernicke's area (sensory speech area) follow lateral fissure located: on left parietal lobe and left temporal lobe involved with understanding and formulating speech damage: can speak, but doesn't make sense
Diencephalon divided into thalamus, hypothalamus, epithalamus
thalamus (head of the bird or the eye ball) relay station for most sensory impulses (travels to central sulcus) that reach the cerebral cortex smell does not travel through the thalamus
hypothalamus (beak of bird, nose & top lip of man) located inferior to the thalamus functions included following: controls and integrates activities of the ANS, controls pituitary gland; regulated feeling of rage, aggression, pain, and pleasure; regulates thirst and food intake; regulates body temp.
epithalamus (feather sitting in back of head-behind thalamus) contains the pineal gland secretes the hormone melatonin (produced during darkness) may contribute to the setting of the sleep-wake cycle
brain stem contains three parts: midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata
midbrain (below thalamus, neck of bird) functions include: relay motor and sensory impulses and involved with hearing (integral part of the auditory pathway) and visual reflexes
pons (below midbrain, adam's apple of man) relays information from the cerebrum to the cerebellum
medulla oblongata (tail feather of bird, below pons) regulates heartbeat, blood pressure, breathing, coughing, sneezing, vomiting, and hiccuping
cerebellum (wings on back of bird) regulates coordinated skeletal muscle movements, posture, and balance
Meninges three connective tissue layers that cover and protects the CNS: dura mater, arachnoid mater, and pia mater
dura mater "tough mother" most superficial layer (above the dura is the epidural space)
arachnoid mater "spider web-like" middle layer between the dura and arachnoid if the subdural space
pia mater "under arachnoid mater" can't see the mater, will need microscope adheres to the surface of the brain between the pia and arachnoid is the subarachnoid space subarachnoid space - filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) nourishes and protects brain & spinal cord circulates through the subarachnoid space and the central canal of the spinal cord produces in the ventricles of the brain be cells of the choroid space: lateral, third, and fourth ventricle
lateral ventricles (2) left and right, below mohawk of bird (hair of man) one located in each cerebral hemisphere
third ventricle (1) located between the two halves of the thalamus
fourth ventricle (1) located between the brain stem and the cerebellum
Created by: hharki