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Overview of Chapter 1 Test in Pathophysiology

What is the inflammatory response? Chemicals are released (Prosteglandins, leukotrienes, kinins, opson, histimine) Stimulate pain receptors (leukocytosis) Increase in blood flow (dilation of arterioles, stretch capillaries, local edema, Neutrophils flow through the capillaries)
What is the inflammatory response? (Cont...) Neutrophils are trapped in capillaries by binding selectin and integrin. Neutrophils move towards walls by margination and pavementing. Neutrophils move from the blood to the exudate through Diapedisis.
Inflammatory Response ? (Final) Neutrophils are attracted to the site of energy through chemotaxis. Activation of phagocytosis (opsonization)
List the common treatment modalities. Surgery, Chemotherapy, Radiation, Pharmacological, Lifestyle, Palliative
What are the likely consequences of diseases? (prognosis) Terminal (fatal) , Complications (consequencesduring disease), Sequela (consequences after disease)
What are the functions of the inflammatory response? Pain makes it easier to repair because of less usage. Leukocytosis needed to help with infection. Local edema carries material away from site of injury. Phagocytosis helps with demolition.
What is the difference between regeneration and repair? Regeneration - Use mitosis to return to original condition (slow process but retain function) Repair - Forming scar tissue using collegen.
What are the complications of repair? Adhesions - Scar tissue binds to structures together that normally independent Keloid Scarring - Overgrowth of scar tissue Contracture - Shrinking of tissue Sclerosis - Hardening of scar tissue
How do you treat inflammation non-pharmacological? Rest Ice Compress Elevate
What are the examples of NSAID's? MOA? Problems with long term use? Aspirin, Ibroprofine Decreasing production prosteglandins (less inflammation) Cause Ulcers
What are examples of corticosteriods? MOA? Problems with long term use? Cortisone, Prednisone Decrease bodies production of prosteglandins and leukotrienes. Weakens immune system and increased risk of infection.
What are the three main causes of cell injury? Trauma - Car accident Deficiancy - lack of something essential like water, glucose, oxygen Intoxication - Exposed to a toxic level of something. Alcohol, water, oxygen
Define Inflammation. Occurs due to injury or infection
What causes the signs and symptoms of inflammation? Name each. Pain - increased pressure on nerves Swelling - Shift of fluids into interstitial spaces. Redness/Warmth - Increased blood flow to damaged area.
What are the infectious fluids of HIV/AIDS? Seman Breast milk Vaginal Secretions Blood
What are the stages of HIV/AIDS Prodromal Stage - occurs within a month, Lasts about a week, nonspecific signs and symptoms. Asymptomatic Stage - No Symptoms, 6-10 years, Signs include viremia (virus in blood), presence of antibodies, and decrease in CD4 (helper t)
Stages of HIV/AIDS continued... Acute Stage - AID's Stage - CD4 count less then 200 -Opportunistic Disease develops (Infections, Cancer, Change in Physiology in body)
What is the treatment of HIV/AIDS? Fusion inhibitors - Interfere with binding of CD4 Protein Reverse transcriptase Inhibitors - Interfere with the conversion of RNA to DNA Protease Inhibitors - affects assembly of the virus.
What is the prognosis of HIV/AIDS? Keep in 2nd stage as long as possible.
How does a virus select and infect a target cell? Binds to the CD4 Protein located on the membrane of the helper t cell, Fuses then with the t-4 lymphocyte, Viral RNA and Reverse Transcriptase inserted into target cell, Reverse transcriptase produces viral DNA from viral RNA.Viral DNA enters nucleus(spli
Continue on virus select and infect target cell... The target cell uses the information on the viral DNA and produces the pieces needed for building copies of HIV. The pieces are assembled into new copies of HIV. This process uses an enzyme called protease. Copies of the virus are released from the cell
Why can't you develop a vaccine for HIV? Virus is constantly mutating and the virus needs a host cell in order to function.
What is the local allergic response? (Sensitization) Sensitization - No signs or symptoms, contact with allergen, overproduction of IGE antibodies, IGE binds to mast cells in area, then referred to as "sensitized" because of IGE on surface of mast cell.
What is the local allergic response? (Future Exposure) Signs and Symptoms, Contact with allergen, Allergen binds with IGE, Histimine released/diffusion occurs, Histimine binds and causes signs and symptoms (blood vessels dilate causing local edema, Skin neurons leads to itching, bronchoconstriction)
What is the treatment of allergies? Antihistimines - blocks receptors Steroids - inhaler or cream (cortaid)
What is the systemic allergic response? Lifethreatening -Sudden severe drop in blood pressure/shock -large amt. of histimine (Anaphylaxis) -Constriction of airways -breathing problems
What is the treatment of Anaphylaxis? A- Adrenaline (epi pen) B- Benedryl (antihistimine) C- Cortisone (steriods)
What is the difference between immunosurveillance and immunotolerance? Immunosurveillance in immune system on the lookout for foreign in body. Immunotolerance - Memory of the immune system
What are the signs/symptoms/diagnosis of SLE? "Butterfly rash" Polyarthritis - two or more swollen joints Pleuritis - dyspnea Photosensitivity -exposure to sunlight
What is the prognosis of SLE? Depends on what is affected Skin - lifestyle changes Heart, Brain, Lungs - fatal
What is the difference between cortisone and adrenaline? Adrenaline - increases heart rate, constricts blood vessels. Cortisone - Weakens immune system, increased chance of infection, retains fluid, changes in sodium level, weight gain
What is the most common type of cancer carcinoma or sarcoma? Carcinoma cause starts in epithelial tissues because there is a fair amount on the human body. Epithelial tissues always go through mitosis.
What are the risk factors of cancer? Hereditary - no control over immune system, TSG genes (protective) , DNA polymerase - makes copies of DNA. Environmental Physical - pollution, radiation Viral - cause mutations - mutations cause cancer Chemical - Insectisides Hormone=increased rate o
Risk factors of cancer cont... Lifestyle - can affect immune system
Created by: fender87_2