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Nervous System

QuestionAnswer
Skeletal Muscles are innervated by: Somatic nervous System
What happens when the action potential arrives at the end of an axon? A neurotransmitter is released from the axon terminal
What is resting potential? the membrane potential of an undisturbed cell.
What is the resting potential of a human? -70mv
What results in depolatization? An increase in positive charges flowing into the cell.
What are neuroglia capable of that neurons are not? cell division
How is sodium and potassium transported across the membrane via pump? The pump moves three sodium ions (Na+) out for every two potassium (K+) ions pumped into the cell; this maintains a membrane potential of about -70mV (negative charge on the inside of the membrane and positive charge on the outside,
Oligodendrocytes form? myelin sheaths that surround the axons of some neurons in CNS
Ependymal cells Neuroglial cells within the CNS produce, monitor, and circulate cerebrospinal fluid
What are the major divisions of the nervous system Central and periphreral
Where are you most likely going to find a multipolar neuron? Special sense organs
Hyperpolarization A stimulus that opens gated potassium ion channels and moves the membrane potential toward the resting membrane potential
Microglia Scavenger phagocytic cells in the central nervous system CNS
Continuous conduction local currents depolarize adjacent areas of membrane so that action potentials continue to form along the membrane
The sequence of Action Potential A stimulus arrives, voltage-gated sodium channels open, sodium enters the cell, cell is depolarized, voltage-gated sodium channels close as K channels open, potassium leaves the cell, Cell is repolarized
Astrocytes The outer area of sun shaped ganglie dooies attached to neurons
All or none principle All stimuli great enough to bring the membrane to threshold will produce identical action potentials
Central Nervous System posesses? brain and spinal cord
Oligodendrocytes are to CNS as Schwann cells are to PNS
Difference between saltatory and continuous propagation of nerve impulses? Saltatory carries impulses at a faster rate than continuous propagation
Depolarization opening of voltage-gated sodium channels in the membrane of a neuron
Dendrites Receive messages
Axons Send messages
Ependymal cells line the central canal and ventricles of the brain and produce cerebrospinal fluid
Depolarization results in opening of sodium channels
Where in the neuron is an action potential initially generated? Axon hillock
Repolarization results from closing of sodium channels
hyperpolarization results from slow closing of K+ channels
what is the magnitude/amplitude of action potential? 100 mV
How is an action potential propagated along an axon? An influx of sodium ions from the current action potential depolarizes the adjacent area
Why cant an action potential be generated during the absolute refractory period? sodium channels are inactive
What direction do action potentials move? away from the axon hillock down the axon away from the cell body
the velocity of the action potential is fastest in a large, myelinated axon
myelination acts as insulation in action potential
Membranes of neurons at rest are very permeable to K+
membranes of neurons at rest are only slightly permeable to Na+
Function of Na+, -K+ pump is? To maintain the resting membrane potential. Na+ is pumped out, K+ pumped in
Where is Na+ and Cl- concentration the highest? outside the cell
In a synapse, neurotransmitters are stored in vesicles located in the presynaptic cleft
How is a neurotransmiter released from the action potential Opening of Ca2+ channels
binding of a neurotransmitter to its receptor opens? ion channels on the postynaptic membrane
Presynaptic neuron at a synapse between two neurons, the impulse passes from the axon terminal, where neurotransmitter is released
Post synaptic neuron around axon terminal, occurs when the post synaptic cell is a neuron
Acetylcholine breaks down by an enzyme before being returned to presynaptic neurons axon terminal
The arrival of an action potential at the end of an axon results in? A release of a new action potential
What is the voltage when sodium channels open? +10mV
when do Postassium channels open +30 mV
What is in the diacephalon? Pineal gland, hypothalmus, thalmus
Created by: iessnorris