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IPHY 3410- exam 2

cardiac and smooth muscle cells are surrounded by what endomysium
what is at intercalated disk gap junction and desmosome
circular vs. longitudinal layer circular closer to lumen; they're perpendicular to one another
3 types of joints fibrous, cartilagenous, synovial
immobile joint synarthrosis
slightly moveable joint amphiarthrotic
freely moveable diarthrotic
3 types of fibrous joints suture, syndesmoses, gomphoses
fibrous joints are made of dense regular connective tissue
syndesmoses amphiarthrotic, connect bones together
two types of cartilagenous joints symphysis and synchrondrosis
synchrondrosis bones united by hyaline cartilage
epiphyseal plate is an example of a synchondrosis (cartilagenous joint)
what type of connective tissue comprises the strongest portion of an articular capsule dense irregular CT
synovial fluid blood filtrate containing glycoproteins; nourishes chondrocytes
what secretes synovial fluid fibroblast
the articular disc is what in the knee meniscus
rheumatoid arthritis autoimmune disorder that causes inflammation of synovial membrane
what is the inflamed joint synovium in rheumatoid arthritis called pannus
pannus in rheumatoid arthritis can turn into what scar tissue and thus fusing of bones
osteoarthritis articular cartilage breaksn down via normal enzyme activity or overuse; bone-to-bone contact results
gouty arthritis uric acid build up in synovial joints and forms a tophus
translational joints can move in multiple directions but only within one plane
uniaxial joints: can only move around 1 axis
biaxial joints moves around 2 axes
multiaxial joints 3+ axes
hinge joint humerus and ulna (uniaxial)
pivot joint humerus and radius (uniaxial)
plane joint carpals/tarsals (translational)
condyloid joint knuckle joint (biaxial)
saddle joint 1st metacarpal-carpal joint (biaxial)
ball and socket joint shoulder (multiaxial)
6 joint movement types hinge, pivot, plane, condyloid, saddle, ball&socket
bursa closed fibrous sac lined by synovial membrane/filled with synovial fluid
tendon sheath an elongated bursa that wraps around tendons in high friction areas
carpal tunnel syndrome inflammation of tendon sheaths, puts pressure on nerve passing through carpal tunnel
how many bones in knee joint 3 (femur, patella, tibia)
2 "joints" in knee tibiofemoral and femoropatellar
what type of joint is the femoropatellar joint plane
bicondylar hinge joint articulations between both the lateral and medial condyles
what type of joint is tibiofemoral biaxial hinge joint
what do collateral ligaments do stop leg extension
what do cruciate ligaments do allow knee to lock
ACL does what prevents anterior sliding of tibia
PCL prevents anterior sliding of femur
function of menisus enlarge contact between femur and tibia, guide/support condyles, increase weight bearing surface area
what 2 parts of knee are frequently torn together medial meniscus and MCL (tibial collateral ligament), (and ACL)
strain vs sprain sprain is ligament, strain is tendon/muscle
3 parts of mucosa epithelium, lamina propria (w/ mucosa associated lymphoid tissue), muscularis mucosa
3 things in submucosa vascularized, glands, nerves
muscularis externa nerve plexus, 2 layers (circular and longitudinal)
what type of tissues found in serosa simple squamous epithelium w/ a thin layer of loose aerolar CT
the esophagus is not... contained within a cavity lined by a serous membrane
what forms outer layer of esophagus? adventita
2 nerve plexuses myenteric and submucosal
what does myenteric nerve plexus control peristalsis and segmentation
what does submucosal nerve plexus control gland secretions and muscularis mucosa contrations
tongue is covered in what type of epithelium keratinized stratified squamous epithelium
what is the line under the tongue called? lingual frenulum
4 functions of saliva cleanses teeth, dissolves food (taste), digestive enzymes, contains mucous
2 cell types in salivary glands serous cells and mucous cells
parotid gland salivary gland- serous cells (largest salivary gland)
submandibular gland both serous and mucous cells
sublingual gland and duct mucous cells
different shapes of teeth for different jobs heterodont dentition
baby teeth name/how many deciduous teeth (20)
# of roots and cusps premolars 2+ cusps, 1 or 2 roots
# of roots and cusps molars 4-5 cusps, 2-3 roots
pulp is made of loose areolar CT (blood vessels and nerves)
dentin- comprised of what and what cells produce it created by odontoblasts (collagen+minerals- bone like),
enamel- made of what and what cell produces it? 99% calcium (layer added during development by ameloblasts)
cementum calcified connective tissue (replaced by cementoblasts)
periodontal ligaments- what type of tissue? dense CT that attaches cementum to bony socket
hypoplastic dentition kids w/ celiac disease (issues with enamel, only occurs in kids because enamel isn't produced in adults)
where is muscularis externa skeletal muscle pharynx for swallowing, top of esophagus
muscularis externa in esophagus upper third: skeletal, middle third: mix, lower third: smooth
type of epithelium in stomach simple columnar epithelium
what is found at boundary between gastric pits and gastric gland undifferentiated stem cells
stomach cells replaced every ___ days 3-7
Alexis St Martin gastric fistula from bullet wound
sphincter between pancreatic/bile ducts and duodenum hepatopancreatic sphincter
ingested fats stimulate CCK production, release of bile
presence of acid stimulates secretin production, release of pancreatic juice
what transports fats out of small intestine lacteal
goblet cells (small intestine/colon) secrete mucus to protect epithelium- more in colon than si
paneth cells (small intestine) destroy bacteria
Peyer's patch mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue found in small intestine
epithelium type found in colon simple columnar
internal anal sphincter smooth muscle
external anal sphincter skeletal muscle
what are the veins in the anal canal called hemorrhoidal
gallbladder stores and concentrates bile
what's in bile? cholesterol, bile acids, salts, bilirubin
gallstones formed of cholesterol, precipitates out of bile when stored in gallbladder
what hormone controls release of bile into duodenum? CCK
what are pancreatic exocrine cells called? acinar
what controls release of pancreatic juices? secretin
what produces intrinsic factor parietal cells
what produces HCl parietal cells
4 functions of respiratory system remove CO2/bring in O2, sound, smell, protection
conducting zone nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles
functions of conducting zone transport air in/out, filter, warm/humidify
respiratory zone respiratory bronchioles, alveolar duct, alveolar sac, alveoli
mucous membrane definition epithelium+lamina propria
what divisions of the pharynx must handle food? oropharynx and laryngopharynx
type of epithelium in nasopharynx pseudostratified ciliated columnar
type of epithelium in oropharynx stratified squamous
type of epithelium in laryngopharynx stratified squamous
what kind of cartilage makes up the epigottis elastic
where does pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium return in the larynx? below the vocal folds
castrati males castrated before puberty; high voice and long legs
function of carina initiates cough reflex
branching of bronchiole tree main (primary), lobar (secondary), segmental (tertiary)
how many lobes and lobar bronchi in right lung? 3, 3
how many lobes and lobar bronchi in left lung? 2, 2
how many total segments left lung 8-10
how many total segments right lung 10
If a joint can move, does it necessarily have an axis of rotation? No, a joint can slide without rotating
What articular surface feature is common to ALL JOINTS THAT HAVE AN AXIS OF ROTATION but is not seen in joints that move in a plane curved surfaces
Can a synovial joint that has no axis of rotation be diarthrotic yes, because it moves in a plane and diarthrotic joints are freely moving.
What types of joints would be affected by a virus that specifically damages cartilage in the body? cartilagenous and synovial
As you travel through the alimentary canal from the mouth to the small intestine, how does the type of epithelium change It changes from stratified squamous to simple columnar
How is the mucosa layer of the large intestine similar to that of the small intestine Both have absorptive cells that absorb water. Both have goblet cells for lubrication and protection. Both contain Mucosa Associated Lymphoid Tissue (MALT)
Which cell types of the stomach, small intestine, and large intestine normally produce mucus goblet cells (SI/colon), mucous cells in stomach, mucous neck cells in stomach
Contraction of which skeletal muscle(s) allow for inhalation of air into the lungs? external intercostals and diaphragm
In the respiratory system, what type of epithelium is most common in the respiratory zone Simple squamous to allow gas exchange
premature babies w/out surfactant more energy to inflate alveoli
What structure(s) make up the respiratory membrane? basement membrane, simple squamous of capillary, simple squamous of alveoli
What are the shapes of Type I and Type II cells and how does the shape related to the function? Type I cells are squamous because they are involved in gas exchange and Type II cells are cuboidal because they are secretory.
what is the term to describe stretching a tendon? strain
synchondrosis synarthrotic joint w/ hyaline cartilage joining bones
where is bile SECRETED duodenum
which layers of alimentary canal have nerve plexus muscularis externa and submucosa
what SI structure secretes alkaline mucus duodenal glands
how many premolars 8 (4 pairs)
vocal folds are stretched between what 2 cartilages thyroid and arytenoid
elastic connective tissue encasing alveolar sacs is called what stroma
space between vocal folds rima glottidis
Created by: melaniebeale
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