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Muscles

Chapter 9

three types of muscle Smooth, Cardiac and Skeletal
skeletal muscle voluntary attached to bones, skin of face
cardiac muscle walls of the heart involuntary
smooth muscle found in walls of internal organs such as those of digestive tract involuntary
skeletal muscle 2 composed of skeletal muscle tissue nervous tissue blood and connective tissue
connective tissue coverings fascia, tendons, aponeuroses
Aponeuroses broad sheet in skull connecting muscle to muscle also in stomach
Muscle coverings Epimysium perimysium and endomysium
Epimysium surrounds whole muscle
perimysium surrounds fascicles within a muscle
endomysium surrounds muscle fibers cells with a fascicle
fiber muscle cell mutinucleated sarcolmma sarcoplasm many myofibrils myofibrils consist of thin actin and thick myosin sarcomeres sarcoplasmic reticulum transverse t tubule triad and SR cisternae
sarcomeres contain i band, a band, h zone, z line or z disc, m line
I band light band composed of the thin actin filamets
A band dark band composed of thick myosin filaments
z line anchors filaments in place
h zone center of a band compose of thick myosin filaments
M line anchors thick filaments center of A band
Thick filaments composed of myosin protein heads form cross bridges
thin filaments composed of actin protein associated with troponin and tropomyosin which prevent cross bridge formation when muscle is not contracting
neuromuscular junction a type of synapse also called a myoneural junction site where an axon of motor neuror and skeletal muscle fiber interact
Acetylcholine ach is the neurotransmitter nerve impulse causes release of ach from synaptic vesicles
Myasthenia gravis is an auto immune disorder antibiotics attack acetylcholine receptors on skeletal muscle fibers
Excitation contraction coupling connection between muscle fiber stimulation and muscle contraction
ATP helps muscles relax
Mystin head helps build muscle up for contraction
Acetylcholiesterase enzyme rapidly decomposed ach remaining in the synapse muscle impulse stop when ach is decompsed
calcium pump moves ca+2 back into sacoplasmic reticulum
Troponin tropomyosin complex again covers binding sites on actin
Energy sources for contracting ATP reserves small amount, creatine phospate initial source of energy to regenerate ATP from ADP and P, cellular respiration
Cellular respiration anaerobic phrase: glycolysis occurs in cytoplasm produces little ATP Aerobic phrase: citric acid cycle and electron transport system occurs i nthe mitochondria produces ATP myoglobin stores extra oxygen in muscles
anaerobic threshold shift in metabolism from aerobic to anaerobic during strenuous muscle activity
oxygen debt amount of oxygen needed by liver cells to convert the accumulated lactic acid to glucose and to restore muscle ATP
Muscle fatigue unable to contract muscle
muscle cramp sustained involuntary muscle contraction may be cause by changes in electrolyte concentration in extracellular fluids in the area
Heat production by product of cellular respiration in active cells muscle cells are major source of body heat
muscular response muscle contraction can be observed by removing a single skeletal muscle fiber and connecting it to a device that senses and records changes in the overall length of the muscle fiber
threshold stimulus minimum strength of stimulation of a muscle fiber required to caused contraction
Twitch contractile response of a single muscle fiber to a single impulse
summation process by which the force of individual muscle fiber twitches combine
motor unit a motor neuron all of the muscle fibers it controls
Recruitment increase in the number of motor units activated to produce more force
Isotonic muscle contracts and changes length equal force
Isometric muscle contracts but does not change length change in force
Slow twitch fiber always oxidative resistant to fatigue
fast twitch fatigue intermediate twitch fibers
fast twitch glycolytic fibers anaerobic respiration white fibers poorer blood supply
Hypertrophy enlargement of skeletal muscle that is exercised
Atrophy decrease in size and strength of skeletal muscle that is unused
Smooth muscle shorter single centrally located nucleus elongated with tapering ends
Multi unit smooth muscle cells are less organized
visceral smooth muscle single unit smooth muscle cells respond as a unit
Different from skeletal muscle contraction in these ways smooth muscle lacks troponin uses calmodulin instead
Cardiac muscle striated muscle cells muscle fibers joined together by intercalated disks
Skeletal muscle actions generate a great variety of body movements
4 basic component of levers rigid bar or rod bones, fulcrum or pivot on which bar moves, object moved against resistance and force that supplies energy for movement
Origin less movable end
insertion more moveable end when muscle contracts insertion is pulled toward origin
Agonist muscle that causes an action
prime mover agonist primarily responsible for movement in some cases the terms agonist and prime mover are used interchargebly
synergists muscle that assist agonist/prime mover
antagonist muscles whose contraction causes movement in the opposite direction of the prime mover
Created by: Jenfaith