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Ch9A&P Articulations

TermDefinition
JOINTS ARE CLASSIFIED STRUCTURALLY BASED ON THEIR ANATOMICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND FUNCTIONALLY BASED ON THE AMOUNT OF MOVEMENT THEY PERMIT
THE STRUCTURAL CLASSIFICATION OF JOINTS IS BASED ON (1) the presence or absence of a space between the articulating bones, called a synovial cavity, and (2) the type of connective tissue that holds the bones together
Structurally, joints are classified as one of the following types Fibrous joints Cartilaginous joints Synovial joints
Fibrous joints The bones are held together by dense connective tissue that is rich in collagen fibers, and there is no synovial cavity
Cartilaginous joints The bones are held together by cartilage, and there is no synovial cavity
Synovial joints The bones are united by the dense connective tissue of an articular capsule and oƞen by accessory ligaments, and there is a synovial cavity.
The functional classification of joints relates to the degree of movement they permit
Functionally, joints are classified as one of the following types: SYNARTHROSIS AMPHIARTHROSIS DIARTHROSIS
SYNARTHROSIS An immovable joint
AMPHIARTHROSIS A slightly movable joint.
DIARTHROSIS A freely movable joint. All are synovial joints. They have a variety of shapes and permit several different types of movements.
fibrous joints lack a synovial cavity, and the articulating bones are held very closely together by dense connective tissue. Permit little or no movement.
The three types of fibrous joints are sutures, syndesmoses, and interosseous membranes.
A _______is a fibrous joint composed of a thin layer of dense connective tissue. they occur only between bones of the skull Suture
Their irregular, interlocking edges of ________give them added strength and decrease their chance of fracturing. In older individuals, they are immovable (synarthroses), but in infants and children they are slightly movable (amphiarthroses) They play imp sutures
the area where two or more bones meet, or where a bone and cartilage, or a bone and teeth, meet. A joint, or articulation
Most movements of the body occur at joints
Joints are classified structurally and functionally
Structural classification of joints is based on (1) presence or absence of a synovial cavity (2) the type of connective tissue binding the bones together
Fibrous joints include sutures, syndesmoses, and gomphoses.
A suture is composed of thin dense connective tissue
Sutures are synarthroses and are only found in the skull
Some sutures, called _______, are present during childhood but eventually get replaced by _______ tissue in adulthood synostoses, osseous
In a syndesmosis, the dense connective tissue of a ligament unites the bones and permits slight movement
gomphosis a peg-in-a-socket joint composed of a bone held in its bony socket by a periodontal ligament. It is a synarthrosis; the only examples in the human body are the teeth.
Interosseous membranes slightly movable joints found between the radius and ulna in the forearm and the tibia and fibula in the leg.
Cartilaginous joints lack a synovial cavity and are held together by cartilage
Cartilaginous joints include synchondroses and symphyses.
synchondrosis composed of hyaline cartilage and is a synarthrosis.
symphysis has fibrocartilage connecting the bones at their articular cartilage surfaces; it is an amphiarthrosis
Articulating surfaces of bones at a synovial joint are covered with __________ and enclosed within a ___________. articular cartilage, synovial cavity
. All synovial joints have a _______that allows the joint to function as a diarthrosis. The bones have a covering of _______on their articulating surfaces to reduce friction and________. synovial cavity, articular cartilage, absorb shock
The synovial cavity is enclosed by a sleevelike _______ composed of an outer _________ that helps stabilize the joint and an inner _______. articular capsule, fibrous membrane, synovial membrane
The synovial membrane secretes a viscous, clear ______ that forms a thin film over the articular capsule surfaces to reduce friction, absorb shock, supply oxygen and nutrients, and remove wastes. synovial fluid
Accessory ligaments located inside and outside the articular capsule are often found at synovial joints.
Certain synovial joints, like the knee, have pads of fibrocartilage, called_______ , lying between the articular surfaces of the bones and attached to the fibrous membrane. articular menisci
These discs stabilize the joint and direct the flow of synovial fluid to areas of greatest friction. articular menisci
Bursae sacs lined with a synovial membrane and filled with synovial fluid. They cushion adjacent body parts at certain joints and help alleviate friction between them.
tendon sheaths Tubelike bursae wrap around muscle tendons to prevent friction
Synovial joint movement terminology indicates the direction of movement or the relationships of body parts during movement
Movements at synovial joints are grouped into four categories: (1) gliding, (2) angular movements, (3) rotation (4) special movements.
Gliding occurs at plane joints where flat bone surfaces move back and forth and side to side in relation to one another without alteration of the angles between the bones.
Angular movements occur when the angle between articulating bones increases or decreases during movement. Angular movements include flexion, extension, lateral flexion, hyperextension, abduction, adduction, and circumduction
Flexion a decrease in the angle between articulating bones
extension an increase in the angle between articulating bones
When flexion occurs laterally along the frontal plane, rather than along the sagittal plane, it is . When body parts at a joint undergo extension beyond their the sagittal plane, it is lateral flexion
When body parts at a joint undergo extension beyond their anatomical position, it is hyperextension
Abduction the movement of a bone away from the midline
adduction the movement of a bone toward the midline
Circumduction movement of the distal end of a body part in a circle. It results from a sequence of movements: flexion, abduction, extension, and adduction
Rotation involves a bone revolving around its own axis. In medial rotation a limb rotates toward the midline; in lateral rotation a limb rotates away from the midline
Special movements occur only at certain joints. These include elevation, depression, protraction, retraction, inversion, eversion, dorsiflexion, plantar flexion, supination, pronation, and opposition.
extension an increase in the angle between articulating bones
When flexion occurs laterally along the frontal plane, rather than along the sagittal plane, it is . When body parts at a joint undergo extension beyond their the sagittal plane, it is lateral flexion
When body parts at a joint undergo extension beyond their anatomical position, it is hyperextension
Abduction the movement of a bone away from the midline
adduction the movement of a bone toward the midline
Circumduction movement of the distal end of a body part in a circle. It results from a sequence of movements: flexion, abduction, extension, and adduction
dorsiflexion Bending of the foot at the ankle in the direction of its superior surface
Rotation involves a bone revolving around its own axis. In medial rotation a limb rotates toward the midline; in lateral rotation a limb rotates away from the midline
Special movements occur only at certain joints. These include elevation, depression, protraction, retraction, inversion, eversion, dorsiflexion, plantar flexion, supination, pronation, and opposition.
elevation Upward movement of a body part
depression downward movement of a body part
protraction Movement of a body part anteriorly in the transverse plane
retraction movement of a protracted body part back to the anatomical position
inversion Moving the soles of the feet medially
eversion. moving the soles laterally
dorsiflexion Bending of the foot at the ankle in the direction of its superior surface
plantar flexion. bending of the foot at the ankle in the direction of its inferior surface
Supination movement of the forearm resulting in the palm facing anteriorly
pronation the movement of the forearm resulting in the palm facing posteriorly.
opposition. Movement of the thumb at the carpometacarpal joint across the palm to touch the fingertips
Synovial joints are described as plane, hinge, pivot, condyloid, saddle, or ball-and-socket
plane joint the articulating surfaces are flat, and the bones glide back and forth and side to side; they may also permit rotation
hinge joint the convex surface of one bone fits into the concave surface of another, and the motion is angular around one axis.
pivot joint a round or pointed surface of one bone fits into a ring formed by another bone and a ligament, and movement is rotational.
condyloid joint an oval projection of one bone fits into an oval cavity of another, and motion is angular around two axes; examples include the wrist joint and metacarpophalangeal joints of the second through fifth digits.
saddle joint the articular surface of one bone is shaped like a saddle and the other bone fits into the saddle like a sitting rider.
ball-and-socket joint the ball-shaped surface of one bone fits into the cuplike depression of another. Motion is around three axes.
The shoulder, elbow, hip, and knee joints provide examples of synovial joint components, classifications, and movements
The shoulder joint is formed by the head of the humerus and the glenoid cavity of the scapula.
Anterior and superior ligaments help reinforce the joint, and four bursae help reduce friction shoulder joint
Most joint stability comes from the rotator cuff muscles and their tendons that encircle the joint shoulder joint
This joint allows flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, medial rotation, lateral rotation, and circumduction shoulder joint
The elbow joint is a hinge joint formed by the trochlea of the humerus, the trochlear notch of the ulna, and the head of the radius
It is stabilized by strong ligaments. This joint permits flexion and extension of the forearm elbow joint
The hip joint is a ball-and-socket joint formed by the head of the femur and the acetabulum of the hip bone
Its articular capsule is dense and strong, and reinforced by several strong ligaments hip joint
The acetabulum is a deep socket that secures articulation with the femur hip joint
Rotation and every angular movement are permitted; however, the hip joint does not have as wide a range of motion as the shoulder joint because of its strong ligaments. hip joint
The knee joint is the body’s largest and most complex joint
The weak, incomplete articular capsule is strengthened by the muscle tendon of the anterior thigh muscles and other tendons and ligaments knee joint
The tibial and fibular collateral ligaments give the joint stability knee joint
Created by: fieldslady80