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Anatomy

Nervous Tissue

TermDefinition
Functions of the Nervous System sensory function, integrate function, and a motor function
sensory function senses changes (stimuli) in the internal and external environment
integrative function analyzes the changes and makes decisions on what should happen
motor function responds to the stimuli after decision is made
divisions of the nervous system central nervous system and peripheral nervous system
central nervous system (CNS) consists of the brain and spinal cord
peripheral nervous system (PNS) all other nervous system structures (sensory receptors, nerves, ganglia, and plexuses)
divisions of PNS somatic nervous system and autonomic nervous system
somatic nervous system (SNS) controls skeletal muscles (voluntary)
autonomic nervous system (ANS) controls smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands (involuntary)
divisions of ANS sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions
sympathetic division activated during times of physical activity and with stressful situations "fight or flight" activation may result in pounding heart, rapid & deep breathing, cold & sweaty skin, and dilated pupils
parasympathetic division controls resting and non-stressful situations "rest and digest"
Two major categories of cells found in the nervous system glial cells and neurons
glial cells also called neuroglia (supporting cells of the nervous system) six types: astrocytes, ependymal calls, microglia, oligodendrocytes, Schwann cells, & satellite cells
astrocytes helps regulate which substances from the blood can reach neurons (CNS) promote the formation of tight junctions between the epithelial cells of capillaries forming the blood-brain barrier regulates movement of materials from the blood into the brain and
oligodendrocytes produce myelin within the CNS
schwann cells produce myelin within the PNS
neurons each neuron consists of a cell body and two types of processes (axons and dendrites)
cell body (soma) contains nucleus, organelles, and cytosol cluster of cell bodies within the CNS are called NUCLEI clusters of cell bodies within the CNS are called GANGLIA
dendrites parts of the neuron which receive electrical impulses
axon carries electrical impulses away from the cell body (towards another neuron, muscle fiber, or gland cell)
presynaptic terminals the bulb shaped ends of the axons they contain synaptic vesicles which store neurotransmitters (chemical messengers of the nervous system)
myelin sheaths most axons are surrounded by myelin sheaths insulate the neuron and speeds up the action potentials in the CNS, myelin sheaths are formed by oligodendrocytes in the PNS, myelin sheaths are formed by schwann cells where oligodendrocytes and schwann cel
myelinated neurons neurons that have axons covered with meylin sheaths action potentials travel along the axons of myelinated neurons by way of saltatory conduction
unmyelinated neurons neurons that have axons that are not covered with myelin sheaths action potentials travel along the axons of unmyelinated neurons by way of continuous conduction
white matter regions of the CNS that consists mainly of myelinated axons are white in color
gray matter regions of the CNS that consists mainly of cell bodies and unmyelinated axons are gray in color
functional classification of neurons based on the direction in which action potentials are conducted sensory neuron, motor neuron, and interneurons
sensory (afferent) neurons conduct action potentials (from sensory receptors) towards the CNS
motor (efferent) neurons conduct action potentials away from the CNS (towards muscles and glands)
interneurons (association neurons) conduct action potentials from one neuron to another within the CNS
structural classification of neurons bases on the number of processes that extend from the neuron cell body multipolar, bipolar, unipolar neurons
multipolar neurons (typically motor or interneuron functions) one axon and many dendrites
bipolar neurons one axon and one dendrite function: special sensing
unipolar neurons appear to have one axon and no dendrites function: somatic sensory (general sensing)
Created by: hharki
 

 



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