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Anatomy

Articulations and Movement

TermDefinition
articulation site where two or more bones meet (joint) gives skeleton mobility and hold together
functional classification based on amount of movement occurring at the joint synarthroses, amphiarthroses, and diarthroses
synarthroses no movement sutures of the skull
amphiarthroses little movement acromioclavicular
diarthroses freely movable glenohumeral, elbow, fingers
structural classification based on what binds the bones together fibrous joints, cartilaginous joints, and synovial joints
fibrous joints bones are united by collage fibers sutures
cartilaginous joints bones are united by a plate of cartilage ribs of sternum, pubic symphysis
synovial joints bones are separated by joint cavity very movable diarthroses
structure of synovial joint articular cartilage, joint cavity, synovial fluid, joint capsule, and reinforcing ligaments
articular cartilage hyaline cartilage found on the ends of long bones
joint cavity space that surrounds the joint
synovial fluid reduce friction nourishes cartilage cells
joint capsule encloses the joint composed of fibrous capsule (outer layer of joint capsule) and synovial membrane (lines inside of the fibrous capsule)
reinforcing ligaments strengthen and stabilize joint
bursae sacs filled with synovial fluid that reduce friction
tendon sheaths elongated bursae which wrap around tendons, reduce friction
sprain a ligament is stretched or torn heal very slowly
dislocation bones are forced out of alignment
temporomandibular joint (tmj) formed by mandibular condyles of the mandible and the mandibular fossae of the temporal bones
shoulder (glenohumeral) joint glenoid labrum: rim of fibrocartilage ligaments: glenohumeral ligament, acromioclavicular ligament, coracoacromial ligament, coracoclavicular ligament rotator cuff muscles: supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, subscapularis (SITS)
elbow joint trochlea of humerus and trochlear notch of the ulna; capitulum of the humerus and head of the radius; radial notch of the ulna and head of the radius; olecranon fossa of the humerus and olecranon process of the ulna ligaments: ulnar collateral ligament;
hip joint formed by head of femur and acetabulum of coxal bone acetabular labrum: circular rim of fibrocartilage ligaments: ligaments of the joint capsule (thickenings that help strengthen coxal joint); ligament teres (attaches head of femur to acetabulu, no role
knee joint formed by medial & lateral condyles of femur and medial & lateral articular surfaces (condyles) of the tibia minisci: fibrocartilage disks (between tibial & femoral condyles) ligament: patellar ligament, medial collateral ligament (tibia), lateral colla
ankle joint lateral malleolus of the fibula medial malleolus of the tibia talus anterior tibiofibular ligament posterior tibiofibular ligament anterior talofibular ligament posterior talofibular ligament calcaneofibular ligament medial (deltoid) ligament of a
Created by: hharki