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Anatomy

Bone and Bone Tissue

TermDefinition
four components of the skeletal system cartilage, bones, ligaments, and tendons
functions of the skeletal system support, protection, movement, storage, blood cell production
three functions of cartilage hyaline, fibrocartilage, elastic
hyaline cartilage location: ends of bones, ribs, growth plates, trachea, bronchi, nose, and embryonic skeleton function: provides smooth surfaces for joints, provide support
fibrocartilage strongest function: support location: pubic symphysis, intervertebral disks, labrum, minisci
elastic cartilage function: support with flexibility location: epiglottis, external ear
long bones longer than wide examples: bone of the limbs (humerus, phalanges, fibula, etc.)
short bones cube like bones examples: wrist and ankle
flat bones examples: sternum, ribs, certain bones of skull
irregular bones all other bones example: vertebrae, hip bones
sutural located within the sutures of the skull (not always present)
sesamoid bones shaped like a sesame seed bone is surrouned by a tendon example: patella
structures of a long bone diaphysis, epiphyses, epiphyseal lines, periosteum, and endosteum
diaphysis shaft of a long bone composed of primarily compact bone contains marrow cavity (yellow bone marrow)
epiphyses ends of long bone composed primarily of spongy bone covered with articular cartilage (hyaline cartilage)
epiphyseal lines located between diaphysis and epiphyses former growth plates
periosteum (around the bone) connective tissue membrane which surrounds external surface of the diaphysis
endosteum (enside the bone) connective tissue membrane which surrounds the internal surfaces of the bone
bone (type of connective tissue) bone contains osteoblasts, osteocytes, osteoclasts
osteoblasts (build bone) make bone (secrete osteoid) turn into osteocytes
osteocytes (maintain bone) mature bone cells, maintain bone cell bodies of osteocytes, space called lacunae cell processes of osteocytes, space called canaliculi
osteoclasts (consuming bone) breakdown bone has lots of nuclei (cluster of nuclei)
compact bone external layer of bone composed of osteons bone matrix formed by rings called concentric lamellae each osteon has a central canal (contain blood vessels & nerves) central canals are connected to each other by perforating canals
spongy bone no osteons surrounded by compact bone composed of plates of boned called trabeculae bone is remodeled (keeps bones strong)
bone development (ossification) process of forming bony skeleton two types: intramembranous and endochondral ossification
intramembranous ossification (within membrane) bone originates from connective tissue members flat bones of skull & the clavicles
endochondral ossification bone originates from hyaline cartilage most bones of the skeleton
Created by: hharki