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Anatomy

Structure and Function of the Cell

TermDefinition
three major parts of most cells plasma membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus
plasma membrane forms outer cell-boundary; regulates what gets in and out of the cell
cytoplasm contains cytosol, cytoskeleton, inclusions, and organelles; where most cellular activities take place
nucleus control center of cell, contains DNA (genetic information)
lipids of plasma membrane phospholipids (majority) and cholesterol (provides stability)
proteins of plasma membrane marker molecules, attachment proteins, channel proteins, receptors proteins, enzymes, carrier proteins
marker molecules involved with cell to cell recognition; most are glycolipids and glycoproteins
attachment proteins attach cells to each other
channel proteins involved with transportation of substance in and out of a cell
receptor proteins contain binding sites that can attach to specific substances
enzymes catalyze (speed up) chemical reactions on either the inner or outer surface or outer surface of the plasma membrane
carrier proteins more substance from one side of the plasma membrane to the other
four major parts of the cytoplasm cytosol, cytoskeleton, inclusions, and organelles
cytosol fluid portion of the cytoplasm
cytoskeleton provides support and structure
inclusions miscellaneous substances (hemoglobin, lipid droplets, melanin)
organelles machinery of the cell, each carriers out a specific functions
ribosomes (organelle) sites of protein synthesis; free ribosomes and fixed ribosomes
endoplasmic reticulum (ER) (organelle) have RER and SER; RER - has ribosomes on the external surface (produces protein); SER - no ribosomes, no role in protein synthesis and function in lipid synthesis, storage of Ca ions in muscle cells, detoxification
golgi apparatus (organelle) modifies and packages proteins produced by RER and lipids produced by SER
lysosomes (organelle) contain acidic enzymes; abundant in phagocytes (clean up, eats stuff)
mitochondria (organelle) produce ATP
cilia move materials over the surface of cells; respiratory tract
microvilli increase surface area; found in cells which undergo a lot of absorption
four types of cell junctions desmosomes, hemidesmosomes, tight junctions, gap junctions
desmosomes cell to cell attachment (binds to cell to one another)
hemidesmosomes attach epithelial cells to the basement membrane
tight junctions prevent substances from passing between two cells
gap junctions cell to cell communication
Created by: hharki