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Clinical antibiotics

Clinical use of antibiotics lecture

Name the beta lactams penicillin, cephalosporins, monobactams, carbapenems
Penicillin is #1 for what treatment? Strep throat (Strep A)
Methicillin used to be treated for what? Staph aureus
Why is Aztreoname called a monolactam? Because there is only 1 lactam ring
Are carbapnems broad spectrum or narro? Imipnem is broad
Can carbapenems treat MRSA? No
Name an example of a beta lactamase inhibitor Clavulamic acid
What do beta lactamase inhibitors do? Inactivates enzyme, therefore other biotic is useful
What do piperacillin/TaTazobactam used against? P. aeroginosa, anaerobes
What are ceftriaxones used against? Meningitis/endocarditis/Lymes
What are ceftazidime/Cefepime used against? P. Aeroginosa, meningitis
What is Meropenem used against? Meningitis
What is Aztreonam used against? Aerobic gram negative bacilli
What is the treatment for VRE? No beta lactams
What is the important side effects of beta lactams? Anaphylactic rxn, cutaneous skin rxns, destruction of blood, renal rxns, serum sickness, drug fever, systemic vasculitis, lymphadenopathy
In patient hx, what should you always ask? Penicillin resistance
What are teh advantages of beta lactams Well tolerated no kidney/liver toxiticity, bacteriocidal
What are teh disadavnatages of beta lactams? Allergic rxns, frequent dosing,
What do macrolides treat? Strep pneumoniae, strep pyogenes, H influenza, legionella, mycoplasma
What is the first choice treatment for atypical pneumoniae? Azithromycine
What do macrolides also treat? H. pylori, MAC, toxo, lyme
Strep pneumoniae is now resistant to macrolides t/f? true
What is the toxicity of ketolides? Liver
What is the moa of clindamyclin? 50s ribosome, exact same site as macrolides
What is it used for?(Clindamycin) Anaerobes
What are the side effects of clindamycin Diarrhea, (C. difficile associated), Allergic, Abnormal LFTS
What is the MOA of sulfamethoxanzole? Inhibits THPacid
What si teh trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole used for? PCP
What are teh main side effects of sulfa drugs? allergic/bone marrow
What protozoa does metronidazole target? Giardia, Ameobea, Trichonemas
What are metronidazole most effective for? Anaerobes
What are the side offects of metronidazole GI upset, metallic taste, don't drink alcohol
What is rifampin used for? Mostly aerobic bacteria
Is rifampin used alone? Nope, always in combination
What is the side effect of rifampin? Orange
What do aminoglycosides cover? Gram negative
What are the side effects of aminoglycosides? Nephrotoxicity, ototoxicity,
What AB has a post antibiotic effect? aminoglycosides
aminoglycosides time or concentration dependent? concetnration
Are quinolones time or concentration dependent? Time
Name one side effect of fluoronoquines QT interval, Tendons
What is vancomycin used for? MRSAs, c difficile
Side effects of vancomycin? Renal toxicity, Red man
What is the MOA of linezolid? Protein inhibitors
What is the linezolids used against? Gram +ves
What is linezolids toxicity? GI toxicity, marrow toxicity, weak MOA inhibitor (prozac like drug)
Wha is the moa of daptomycin? Kills bacterial membrane
What should you follow iwth daptomycin? CPK (side effect)
What is our last hope for killing bacteria ? Polymixin.
Created by: villagejoker