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Chapter 22

The Respiratory System - (1st half: zones, resp organs/structures, pressures)

the 4 processes of respiration include: breathing, transport of respiratory gases & external and internal respiration
the respiratory system is responsible for which 2 respiratory processes. pulmonary ventilation and external respiration
in external respiration oxygen moves from the __ to the __ while co2 moves from the __ to the ___ lungs --> blood. blood --> lungs
in internal respiration, oxygen moves from the blood to the tissues, while co2 moves from the __ to the __ tissue --> blood
the upper respiratory system consists of what organs? nose, sinuses & pharynx
the larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, alveoli and pleurae makes up the ___ system lower respiratory
what is cellular respiration? the actual use of oxygen & production of carbon dioxide tissue cells
we inhale ___ while we exhale ___ oxygen - carbon dioxide
the separation btw he upper & respiratory system is around the: larynx
the conducting zone is the ___ passage way for air
the conducting zone consists of the : larynx, trachea & bronchi
conducting zone job: cleanses, warms & humidifies air
because of ___ air has fewer irritants when it reaches the lungs the conducting zone
as we move down the lobes, there is more ___ and less ___ smooth muscle - catilage
gas exchange occurs in this zone. respiratory
the respiratory zone is composed of: bronchioles. alveolar ducts. alveoli
as you go down the conducting zone...the conducting tubes becomes smaller. what else happens? support structure changes. epithelium type changes. amount of smooth muscle increases
serous membrane that surrounds the lung pleurae
pneumothorax equalization of pressure
the passageway of the nose and mouth meet here. pharynx
this structure filters, moistens & warms incoming air, it is also the resonance chamber for speech. nose
the pharynx connects the nasal cavity to the larynx. it is also the passageway for __ and __ air - food
the tonsils are housed in this respiratory structure. pharynx
known as the voicebox larynx
the larynx connects the __ to the ___ pharynx - trachea
the larynx is a passageway for___ air
the trachea is known as the___ windpipe
the flexible tube running down the larynx dividing the 2 bronchi is known as the... trachea
the trachea is an air passageway that : cleans, warms & moistens incoming air
bronchial tree air passageways connecting trachea with alveoli
the alveoli is __ main site of gas exchange
why is the adams apple bigger in males than females? male sex hormones stimulate its growth during puberty
the larynx is part of the __ respiratory tract upper
what cartilage of the larynx is more prominent in males? thyroid
during swallowing, larynx is elevated and glottis is closed by the ___ epiglottis
what characteristic allows the trachea to be open & flexible? c-shaped cartilage rings
a chemical secreed by alveolar cells that helps reduce surface tension on alveoli is ___ surfactant
an increase in volume of the thoracic cavity results in a ___ decrease in pressure
contraction of smooth muscles in the bronchi leads to ___ vasoconstriction - increased resistance & decreased flow
an increase in temperature will __ unloading oxygen from hemoglobin increase
the most important muscle during ventilation is the diaphragm, which contracts during ___ inspiration
what are the smallest structures of the conducting zone? terminal bronchioles
what type of epithelium makes up the respiratory mucosa lining most of the upper respiratory respiratory tract? pseudostratified columnar
what kind of tissue allows gas exchange to occur in the respiratory membrane? simple squamous
the respiratory membrane is formed by ___ alveolar walls, capillaries & a basement membrane
in the respiratory membrane, oxygen goes from __ to the __ alveolus --> blood
in the respiratory membrane. ___ leaves the blood and goes to the alveolus carbon dioxide
thick blood barrier that has blood flowing on one side & gas on the other side. what is this known as? respiratory membrane
the pulmonary veins has __ pressure and __ volume low - high
bronchial arteries has __ pressure and __ volume high - low
___ ___ send oxygenated fresh blood to lungs from the respiratory zone pulmonary veins
bronchial arteries provides oxygenated blood to the lungs bronchial arteries
pressure exerted by the air(gases) surrounding the body atmospheric pressure
what is intrapulmonary pressure? pressure in the alveoli
___ pressure rises and falls with the phases of breathing intrapulmonary
what pressure rises and falls with the phases of breathing but eventually equalizes with the atmospheric pressure? intrapulmonary
anytime pulmonary pressure is less than atm pressure. what happens? air rushes into the lungs along the pressure gradient
intrapleural pressure is pressure.... in the intrapleural cavity
which type of pressure fluctuates with breathing? intrapleural
intrapleural pressure is usually... 4 mmHg less than regular pressure (756mmg)
the movement of molecules from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration is known as: diffusion
the inspiratory muscles consist of the __ and __ diaphragm - external intercostals
boyle's law states____ when temperature is constant, pressure and volume are inversely proportional
volume changes leads to ___ changes which leads to ___ pressure - flow of gases to equalize pressure
what is lung compliance? the stretchiness of lungs
healthy lungs are very __ stretchy
lung compliance = change in lung volume / change in pulmonary - intrapleural pressure
2 factors determined by lung compliance.. stretchiness of the lung tissue. alveolar surface tension
the higher the lung compliance, the easier it is to... inflate the lungs w/ each breath
decreased lung compliance leads to ___ more work by muscles for breathing
carbon dioxide is taken into the __ and oxygen is taken into the __ at the respiratory zone lungs - blood
infant respiratory distress syndrome occurs because premature infants lack the ability to produce _______, which _______. surfactant - surface tension
in pneumothorax, the lung collapses because ____ intrapleural pressure is higher than intrapulmonary pressure
what is the purpose of the transpulmonary pressure? it keeps the lungs inflated
what is vital capacity? total volume of exchangeable air
we find vital capacity by adding... IRV + ERV + tidal volume
what pressure must remain negative to prevent lung collapse? intrapleural
when the pulmonary pressure is greater than the atmospheric pressure, the pressure gradient... forces gas to flow out of lungs
when the atmospheric pressure exceeds the pressure in the alveoli of the lungs (pulmonary pressure), what will happen? air will flow out of the lungs
what muscles are activated during forced expiration? the internal intercostal muscles and abdominal wall muscles
Created by: Mariahj25



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