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Anat-The Ear

QuestionAnswer
parts of the external ear auricle (pinna), external acoustic meatus, tympanic membrane (eardrum)
function of pinna channels sound waves into the ear canal
external acoustic meatus structure/location ear canal through the temporal bone
tympanic membrane function vibrates when energy is transferred from sound waves
middle ear parts auditory (eustachian) tube, ossicles, oval window
middle ear structure/location/function air-filled space in the temporal bone for hearing
auditory tube location opens into the pharynx (throat)
auditory tube function allows equalization of pressure by keeping the pressure in the middle ear cavity similar to that outside of the head so the eardrum doesn't rupture
three ossicles malleus (hammer), incus (anvil), stapes (stirrup)
attachment points of ossicles malleus connects to the eardrum and stapes occupies the oval window (like a piston/plug); connected by synovial joints
ossicles function transmit vibrations
oval window structure opening between the stapes and the inner ear
inner ear location/structure/function completely embedded in the temporal bone, fluid-filled (lymph), for hearing and balance
bony (outer) labyrinth location/structure in contact with bone tissue of the temporal bone- conforms to the shape of the cavity in the bone, like a maze of tubes
parts of the inner ear cochlea, vestibule, semicircular canals
inner ear structure for hearing cochlea
inner ear structure for balance vestibule and semicircular canals
endolymph location in the membranous labyrinth
perilymph location fills the space between the membranous and bony labyrinth
parts of membranous labyrinth of cochlea scala vestibuli,scala tympani, cochlear duct
parts of the cochlea filled with perilymph scala vestibuli, scala tympani
parts of the cochlea filled with endolymph cochlear duct
membranous labyrinth location/structure found within the bony labyrinth; membrane-lined, fluid-filled tubes, sacs, and spaces
spiral organ (organ of Corti) parts hair cells, tectorial membrane, basilar membrane
spiral organ function cochlear structure responsible for hearing
hair cells structure/function have projections called stereocilia (form of microvilli); sensory receptors of the inner ear that release neurotransmitter molecules based on the bending of the stereocilia
tectorial membrane location/structure sits on top of the hair cells; stereocilia are embedded in it
basilar membrane location/function at the bottom of the spiral organ; moves in response to sound waves to cause distortion of the stereocilia
cochlear nerve function carries stimulus from the hair cells (produced by the bending of stereocilia) away from the cochlea
function of vestibule evaluates the position of the head relative to gravity (stationary position) and detects linear acceleration and deceleration (linear movement)
two parts of the vestibule saccule, utricle
maculae structure/location contains hair cells embedded in an otolithic membrane which contains otoliths
utricle and saccule structure/function two sacs that make up part of the membranous labyrinth in the vestibule; each contains a maculae
otolith structure/function dense, little particles that provide mass for the otolithic membrane to make it sensitive to gravity (make gravity more likely to move the membrane)
vestibular branch of CNVIII function carries the balance information away from the stimulated hair cells of the macula in the vestibule
semicircular canals function evaluates rotational/angular movements of the head (angular acceleration and deceleration)
semicircular canals structure three loops going in different directions; each has an ampullae at its base
structures of the membranous labyrinth of the semicircular canals ampulla, crista ampullaris, hair cells, cupula
ampullae structure/function swollen part at the base of each semicircular canal, contains the cells that give directional information
crista ampularis structure elevated region of the ampulla that is covered by an epithelium of hair cells
cupula structure/function gelatinous dome in which the hair cells of the crista ampullaris are embedded
destination of stimulus from the semicircular canals vestibular branch of CNVIII (vestibulocochlear nerve)
mechanism of balance in the vestibule moving the head causes the otolithic membrane to sag under the mass of the otoliths and the force of gravity and causes the stereocilia of the hair cells to bend
mechanism of balance in the semicircular canals rotation of the head causes the endolymph surrounding the cupula to move in a direction opposite that of the head (due to inertia) which pushes against the cupula and causes the stereocilia in it to bend and create a stimulus in the hair cells
Created by: Jean-O