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Anatomy Mod 4 Test

Anatomy

QuestionAnswer
A bone-forming cell Osteoblast
A mature bone cell surrounded by bone matrix Osteocyte
A large, multinucleated cell that breaks down bone Osteoclast
A mass of blood that is confined to a limited space Hematoma
A mass of connective tissue that connects the ends of a broken bone Callus
The position acquired when one stands erect with the feet facing forward, the upper limbs hanging at the sides, and the palms facing forward with thumbs to the outside Anatomical position
What are the 2 principal agents in bone matrix, and how do they each affect the properties of bone tissue? Collagen, which provides tensile strength; and hydroxyapatite, or calcium salts that provide hardness and compressive strength.
A bone is completely surrounded by bone matrix. What kind of bone cell is it? Osteocyte.
A bone cell has more than one nucleus. What kind of bone cell is it? Osteoclast.
Looking at bone tissue under a microscope, you see no osteons. Is this compact or cancellous bone tissue? Cancellous.
What kind of tissue contains trabeculae? What do you often find in the space between trabeculae? Cancellous bone tissue. Bone marrow and blood vessels.
What is the term for the layers of bone tissue that form an osteon? What is the terms for the layers of bone between osteons? Concentric lamellae. Interstitial lamellae.
What are canaliculi? A channel in the bone that the osteocytes' processes go through.
There are at least 6 reasons why bone must be continually remodeled. Can you list at least 5 of them? Bone growth, to bear weight more easily, reshaping, healing breaks, convert cancellous bone to compact bone, increase/decrease mass based on stress, replace worn collagen or hydroxyapatite, regulate calcium levels in blood
Bone growth occurs when new cartilage is added to the bone’s epiphyseal plate. Why doesn’t the epiphyseal plate get thicker as the bone grows? New cartilage is being formed at the same rate that the cartilage at the other side is being ossified.
The epiphyseal plate separates the diaphysis from the epiphysis. On which side of the plate does the tissue ossify? Diaphysis.
If a long bone has no epiphyseal plates because they have become epiphyseal lines, is there any way that a bone can grow? Yes. It can only grow in width.
What is appositional bone growth? Bone growth in diameter rather than length.
The following are processes that occur when bone is repaired. Order then according to the sequence in which they occur. The external callus is removed by the osteoclasts, and cancellous bone is remodeled as needed. 4. A hematoma forms. 1. The callus is ossified. 3. The callus forms. 2.
What is the purpose of the external callus? What is the purpose of the internal callus? To stabilize the bone as it reforms. To eventually become new bone tissue.
Which gland secretes calcitonin? Thyroid.
What is the effect of calcitonin on bone cells? Decrease the activity of the osteoclasts, less calcium in blood.
A person’s medical tests show a large increase in the calcitonin levels of the body. What does that tell you about the calcium level in that person’s blood? It was very high.
Which gland secretes PTH? Parathyroid.
What is the effect of PTH on bone cell? Increase the activity of the osteoclasts, more calcium in blood.
Which gland secretes growth hormone, and what affect does this hormone have on bone tissue? Pituitary gland.
What effect do the sex hormones have on bone growth? They stimulate it. They also stimulate ossification of the epiphyseal plates causing long bone growth to stop.
What are the 3 major types of joints in the body, and which type is associated with most of the movement in the skeleton? Fibrous, cartilaginous, and synovial. Synovial.
What is the purpose of articular cartilage in a synovial joint? To protect the bones.
What is the purpose of the synovial fluid in a synovial joint? Lubrication for the joint.
What produces synovial fluid? The synovial membrane.
List the 6 major types of synovial joints in order of decreasing range of motion. Assume the pivot joints offer slightly more motion than hinge joints. Ball-and-socket, saddle, ellipsoid, pivot, hinge, plane.
Created by: 100006766900221