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Bio 156

Microbiology and Disease

TermDefinition
Infectious Diseases -Can be transmitted -Caused by a pathogen (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, or parasites)
Communicable Infectious Diseases Infectious diseases that can be spread from one individual to another
Non-communicable infectious diseases Infectious diseases that cannot be spread from one individual to another
Epidemiology Study of factors and mechanisms involved in the frequency and spread of infectious diseases
Inherited Diseases Caused by abnormal genes (Hemophilia, sickle-cell anemia)
Neoplastic Diseases Cancers - abnormal cell growths caused by a lack of control of cell growth
Immunity-related Diseases Immune Disorders
Autoimmune Diseases Occur when body attacks its own tissue (E.g. lupus, rheumatoid arthritis)
Immune-deficiency Diseases Occur when one or more components of the immune system fail to function normally (E.g. SCID- severe combined immunodeficiency disease)
Degenerative Diseases Diseases caused by aging such as: - Reduced bone mass (osteoporosis) - Reduced respiratory capacity (respiratory insufficiency) - Reduced heart and kidney function (cardiac insufficiency)
Nutritional Deficiency Diseases Caused by a shortage of essential nutrients in the diet - Scurvy - Vitamin C Deficiency - Blood clotting disorders - Vitamin K Deficiency Rickets - Vitamin D Deficiency
Endocrine Diseases Excessive or inadequate production of hormones - Diabetes - too little or non-functional insulin produced - Giantism - overproduction of growth hormones before normal growth finishes
Iatrogenic Diseases Diseases caused by medical intervention - Adverse reactions to drugs - Infections that occur as a result of surgery (nosocomial infections)
Environmental Diseases Caused by exposure to an environmental toxin (E.g. Lead Poisoning, Mercury Poisoning)
Idiopathic Diseases Diseases with an unknown cause (E.g. Idiopathic asplastic anemia)
Pathology Study of diseases
Pathophysiology Study of changes in body caused by disease
Acute Rapidly developing and may be severe
Chronic Persistent, long-term disease that may be severe or mild
Latent Disease that comes and goes, or relapses
Bacteria Characteristics - only a few micrometers in length - much smaller than human cells - less DNA than human cells - prokaryotic cells - no organelles, have membrane and wall
How to Classify Bacteria By shape and reaction to Gram Stain Oxygen Requirements pH Nutrient Requirements
Gram Stain Process 1) Dye/stain with crystal violet 2) Rinse 3) Add Iodine (for one minute) 4) Decolourize with iodine or alcohol 5) Add counterstain 6) Wash off and dry
Purpose of Gram Stain Detect presence of peptidoglycan in cell wall - Lots of Peptidoglycan = Positive (purple) - Lack of Peptidoglycan = Negative (pink)
Autoclave Used to kill all living organisms with temperatures of 120 degrees or higher
Are most bacteria dangerous or harmless? Usually harmless, and can even be beneficial
Benefits of some bacteria in the body -Some make vitamin K - Some occupy space and prevent other harmful bacteria from occupying it
Opportunistic pathogens Examples/Scenarios Will cause disease given the opportunity E. coli is beneficial in the large intestine, but causes disease if it gets to upper digestive tract Some bacteria are harmless on the skin but cause disease if they enter the body
Flesh Eating Disease - Streptococcus A produces toxin that kills fascia of muscles, toxin sent through blood stream causing necrosis treated by removing dead, infected tissue (sometimes amputation) Not all strep A causes flesh eating disease
Virus Characteristics Very small Not cells Small segments of nucleic acids covered by protein coat Infect cell by invading it and residing inside
Lytic Cycle Reproduce in the cell and burst to get out and infect other cells
Lysogenic Viruses Remain dormant in the cell for a period, then can reemerge to infect cells again
HIV Retrovirus with RNA in nucleic acid gp120 protein on protein coat
gp120 Specifically recognizes a receptor (CD4) on surface of helper T cells When it binds to receptor, it is taken int T cell where it is converted to DNA and incorporated in the cell's genetic material
Sterilization The killing or removal of all microorganisms in a material Used on surgical and dental instruments - sterilized in an autoclave
Disinfection Reduction in number of organisms, applied to non-living substances to reduce the number of pathogens
Antiseptics Mild enough to be used on living tissue
Standard Precautions (Universal precautions) Set of aseptic techniques designed to reduce transmission of pathogens. Standard b/c they are to be used with every patient; presume the worst and treat everyone as if they are contaminated
List of Standard Precautions 1. Latex or vinyl gloves if contacting bodily fluids 2. Gowns and masks if splashing can occur 3. Hypodermic needles and sharps handled minimally 4. Spills cleaned with gloves and paper towel, areas disinfected w/ blaeach
Chemotherapy Use of chemical agents to treat disease
Antibiotics Substances made by microorganisms that have the ability of destroying or inhibiting the growth of bacteria E.g. penicillin inhibits cell wall synthesis Ineffective on viruses
3 Types of Mutations Harmful - Less able to survive - e.g. limit how it obtains energy No Difference Beneficial - increase survival odds - e.g. metabolize more types of sugar
How does resistance occur 1. People stop taking their antibiotics before they should 2. People take bacteria for viral infections
Vaccines Include inactivated bacterial toxins, killed microbes, parts of microbes, and viable but weakened microbes No longer cause disease but retain ability to stimulate an immune response in immunological memory
Created by: autumnnicole