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LD AP US 1-5

LD AP American History Units #1 to 5

TermDefinition
Treaty of Tordesillas In 1494 Spain and Portugal were disputing the lands of the new world, so the Spanish went to the Pope, and he divided the land of South America for them. Spain got the vast majority, the west, and Portugal got the east.
Lost Colony of Roanoke a settlement of British colonists whom Walter Raleigh sent to Roanoke Island (now part of North Carolina) in 1587 and of whom no trace was found after 1591.
Walter Raleigh Organized 1585 expedition to North Carolina's Roanoke Island, off the coast of Virginia, named after Queen Elizabeth I. The settlement failed in great contrast to Spain's.
Conquistadors Spanish explorers that invaded Central and South America for it's riches during the 1500's. In doing so they conquered the Incas, Aztecs, and other Native Americans of the area. Eventually they intermarried these tribes.
King William's War first in a series of colonial conflicts between France & England for supremacy in NA. . To control of the fur trade. All of these struggles had European counterparts that were often of greater significance than the American events.
Queen Anne's War second in a series of wars fought between Great Britain and France in North America for control of the continent. It was contemporaneous with the War of the Spanish Succession in Europe.
Iroquois also known as the Haudenosaunee, are a historically powerful and important northeast Native American confederacy
Algonquian First Nation inhabitants of North America who speak the Algonquin language, a divergent dialect of the Ojibwe language, which is part of the Algonquian language family
Encomienda System The Spanish labor system in which persons were help to unpaid service under the permanent control of their masters, though not legally owned by them
Asiento System in the history of slavery refers to the permission given by the Spanish government to other countries for a monopoly of the African slave trade, in selling people as slaves to the Spanish colonies
Sextant an astronomical instrument used to determine latitude and longitude at sea by measuring angular distances, especially the altitudes of sun, moon, and stars
Christopher Columbus Italian navigator, funded by the Spanish Government to find a passage to the Far East. Discovered "New World," even though at his death he believed he had made it to India. 4 voyages to the "New World." 1st sighting of land was on Oct 12, 1492.
John Cabot 1450-1498 A.D. Venetian explorer and navigator for the English whose expedition discovered the North American mainland in 1497,while seeking a route to Asia.
Sir Francis Drake 1540-1596 A.D Explorer and naval hero, the first English commander to circumnavigate the world while attempting to find a Northwest Passage. He was involved in the destruction of the Spanish Armada.
Giovanni da Verrazano The first European to explore the Atlantic coast of North America between Florida and New Brunswick
Samuel De Champlain Father of New France, a French navigator, cartographer, draughtsman, soldier, explorer, geographer, ethnologist, diplomat, & chronicler; founded New France and Quebec City; made the first accurate map of the coast and he helped establish the settlements.
Robert de La Salle sailed down the Mississippi River for France claiming the whole region for their King Louis & named the area "Louisiana" after his king.
Henry Hudson an English sea explorer and navigator in the early 17th century; explored the area of modern day New York and the river which is named for him
Bartolome de Las Casas Spanish missionary who was appalled by the encomienda system in Hispaniola and called it "a moral pestilence invented by Satan"
Valladolid Debate (1550-1551) was the first moral debate in European history to discuss the rights and treatment of a colonized people by colonizers.
Hernan Cortes He was a Spanish explorer who conquered the Native American civilization of the Aztecs in 1519 in what is now Mexico.
Francisco Pizarro New World conqueror; Spanish conqueror who crushed the Inca civilization in Peru; took gold, silver and enslaved the Incas in 1532.
Jacques Cartier A French explorer who claimed what is now Canada for France
Jamestown first permanent English settlement in North America founded by the Virginia Company. 1607
Virginia Company English joint-stock company that received a charter from King James I that allowed it to found the Virginia colony.
Captain John Smith English adventurer who took control of Jamestown in 1608 and ensured the survival of the colony by directing gold-hungry colonists toward more productive tasks. Established ties with the Powhatan Indians through the Chief's daughter, Pocahontas.
Powhatan Father of Pocahontas. As a show of force, staged the kidnapping and mock execution of Captain John Smith in 1607. He later led the Indians in the first Anglo-Powhatan War, negotiating a tenuous peace in 1614.
Pocahontas She "saved" Captain John Smith in a dramatic mock execution & served as a mediator between Indians and the colonists. In 1614, married John Rolfe & sailed with him to England, she was greeted as a princess,
"Starving" Time The winter of 1609 to 1610 to the colonists of Virginia. Only sixty members of the original four-hundred colonists survived. The rest died because they did not possess the skills that were necessary to obtain food in the new world.
Lord De La Warr Arrived in Jamestown in 1610, he was a veteran of the vicious campaigns against the Irish and introduced "Irish Tactics" in a campaign against the Indians. His troops attacked Indian villages and torched cornfields. Delaware colony was named after him.
John Rolfe One of the early English settlers of North America. He is credited with the first successful cultivation of tobacco as an export crop in the Colony of Virginia and is known as the husband of Pocahontas, daughter of the chief of the Powhatan Confederacy.
"Soil Butchery" Crops such as tobacco used all of the nutrients in the soil, so settlers were forced to move westward for more fertile land.
Virginia House of Burgesses 1619 - Representative parliamentary assembly created to govern Virginia, establishing a precedent for government in the English colonies.
Headright System System employed in Virginia and Maryland to encourage the importation of servant workers; whoever paid the passage of a laborer received the right to acquire fifty acres of land
Governor William Berkeley he governed Virginia and was a Lord Proprietor of Carolina
George Calvert Catholic nobleman was granted control of land by the Chesapeake Bay for his loyal service to King Charles I; established the proprietary colony of Maryland; wanted to achieve great wealth & create a haven for his fellow Catholics, but died before he could
Maryland Act of Toleration (1649) guaranteed toleration to all Christians, decreed the death penalty for those, like Jews & atheists, who denied the divinity of Jesus Christ. Ensured that Maryland would continue to attract a high proportion of Catholic migrants.
Chesapeake Region First area of English settlements -Virginia
Carolinas A restoration and proprietary colony; land granted by Charles II to eight noblemen; consists of South Carolina (trading furs, rice plantations) and North Carolina (tobacco farms, harbors, poor transportation, less reliance on slavery, democratic)
Proprietorship A person who was granted charters of ownership by the king: proprietary colonies were Maryland, Pennsylvania and Delaware
Fundamental Constitution for Carolina (1669) Drawn up by Anthony Cooper & John Locke, it divided the colony into counties & parcels & created a rigidly hierarchical social order. Introduced limited government & the idea of a social contract. Most important of any of the early constitutions.
Bacon's Rebellion an armed rebellion in 1676 by Virginia settlers led by Nathaniel Bacon against the rule of Governor William Berkeley.
Stono Rebellion (1739) Early slave revolt in South Carolina where 50+ slaves gathered arms to rise up against their masters and march to Spanish Florida. They were ultimately found and killed by the militia.
James Oglethorpe Founder of Georgia in 1733; soldier, statesman , philanthropist. Started Georgia as a haven for people in debt because of his interest in prison reform. Almost single-handedly kept Georgia afloat.
Georgia ("Charity"/"Buffer" Colony) 1733 - Georgia was formed as a buffer between the Carolinas and Spanish-held Florida. It was a military-style colony, but also served as a haven for the poor, criminals, and persecuted Protestants.
Mayflower Compact 1620-Agreement to form a majoritarian government in Plymouth, signed aboard the Mayflower. Created a foundation for self-government in the colony
Plymouth Colony Colony founded by Pilgrims. This colony was only successful due to beneficial relations with the Indians and opened up the idea of religious toleration, it was absorbed by the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1691.
Pilgrims Mainly Puritans, Sailed on the Mayflower, Landed in Plymouth Bay, Created the Mayflower Compact
William Bradford elected 30 times as governor of the Pilgrims; a self-taught scholar who read Hebrew, Greek, Latin, French, and Dutch; Pilgrim leader. He also conducted experiments of living in the wilderness and wrote about them; well known for "Of Plymouth Plantation."
Massachusetts Bay Colony 1629-Established by non-separating Puritans, it soon grew to be the largest and most influential of the New England colonies.
John Winthrop First governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, A successful attorney and manor lord in England, Helped the colony to prosper in fur trading, fishing and shipbuilding
"City on a Hill" the idea of a city that would set an example to other cities and solve all religious problems. John Winthrop and other Massachusetts founders believed that they were founding this kind of holy commonwealth.
Puritans stimulated by King Henry's breaking with the Roman Catholic Church, came from commercially depressed woolen districts, relied on Calvinism which fed on the social unrest and economic disadvantage of this religious group.
Theocracy the belief in government by divine guidance
Pequot War 1634-38- war between the colonists and the Pequot tribe- ended in destruction of the tribe and uneasy peace.
Antinomianism Belief that the elect need not obey the law of either God or man; most notably espoused in the colonies by Anne Hutchinson.
Roger Williams English clergyman and colonist who was expelled from Massachusetts for criticizing Puritanism
Anne Hutchinson She preached the idea that God communicated directly to individuals instead of through the church elders. She was forced to leave Massachusetts in 1637. Her followers (the Antinomianists) founded the colony of New Hampshire in 1639.
Thomas Hooker Reverend who led large group of Boston Puritans unhappy with Mass authorities into the Connecticut River Valley and founded Hartford in 1636.
Cotton Mather Member of a distinguished family in Massachusetts and a deeply religious man. his influence during his lifetime was tremendous, but did not have a lasting legacy
Visible Saints (the elect) persons who felt the stirrings of grace in their souls and could demonstrate its presence to their fellow Puritans
Fundamental Articles of Connecticut The first written constitution in American History; written by Hartford settlers; this established a representative government consisting of legislature elected by popular vote and a governor chosen by that legislature
Fundamental Articles of New Haven Established a bible-based government even stricter than that of the Massachusetts Bay.
Halfway Covenant a new formula for church membership announced in 1662 by troubled ministers. It modified the agreement between the church and its adherent.
King Philip's War 1675-Series of assaults by Metacom, King Philip, on English settlements in New England. The attacks slowed the westward migration of New England settlers for several decades.
Wampanoags tribe that befriended the pilgrim settlers
Metacom aka King Phillip, joined together the Native American tribes to fight the colonists, a war that lasted from 1675 to 1676
Peter Stuyvesant The governor of the Dutch colony of New Amsterdam, hated by the colonists. They surrendered the colony to the English on Sept. 8, 1664.
New York Charles II granted this area to his brother, the Duke of York, as the English took over New Netherlands in the area, very aristocratic and autocratic.
William Penn established Pennsylvania (not named after him) for Quakers. Good relationship with Indians.
Quakers refused to support the established Church of England with taxes, congregated without clergy, spoke up in town meetings, abhorred strife and warfare and refused military service, persecuted in England.
George Fox English religious leader who founded the Society of Friends (1624-1691).
Margaret Fell Argued that God had imbued all men and women with an "inner light" of grace of understanding
Inner Light a divine presence believed by Quakers to enlighten and guide the soul
Pennsylvania The name given to the grant of land that was given to William Penn's father by the royal family; it means "Penn's woods"
Holy Experiment William Penn's experiment to test ideas he had developed based on his Quaker beliefs; this was to created a religious refuge for Quakers and other persecuted people, enact liberal ideas in government, and generate income and profits for himself
Charter of Liberties A written constitution which guaranteed freedom of worship for all unrestricted immigration in Pennsylvania
Salem Witch Trials 200 people were accused of being witches from 1692 to 1693. Twenty people were killed and eventually the trials were stopped by the Salem colony.
John and Charles Wesley Evangelists from england who founded Methodism. Visited the colonies in the 1730s to help spread the revivalist movement.
Methodism A movement of Protestant Christianity; religion is known for concern for societal welfare & doing missionary work & trying to spread the message of Jesus around by establishing hospitals, schools, and soup kitchens; founded by John and Charles Wesley
George Whitefield Preacher who traveled throughout the colonies during the Great Awakening-set off a surge of religious enthusiasm. His different preaching style garnered an emotional response
Jonathan Edwards An American Congregational clergyman, whose sermons stirred the religious revival, called the Great Awakening. He is known for his " Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God " sermon.
Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God famous speech given by Jonathan Edwards reflective of the Great Awakening, you-are-doomed-for-hell attitude
New Light ministers who took part in the revivalist, emotive religious tradition pioneered by George Whitefield during the Great Awakening
Old Light orthodox clergymen who rejected the emotionalism of the Great Awakening in favor of a more rational spirituality
The Great Migration moderate puritans sought reform the church, anti-puritan archbishop persecuted them, 1629, Puritans got a charter from MA Bay company, 1,000 puritans come in the ships, more turmoil in England caused great migration (1630's)
Rights of Englishman Established during centuries of British history. They include the rights to trial by jury, security from unlawful entry into one's home, and no taxation without the consent of Parliament
Indentured Servants Englishmen who were outcasts of their country, would work in the Americas for a certain amount of time
English Civil War 1642-49-Armed conflict between royalists and parliamentarians, resulting in the victory of pro-Parliament forces and the execution of Charles I.
Cavaliers Clashed with the 'roundheads' and were supporters of a monarchical and refers to the ideals of feudal knighthood.
Roundheads Clashed with the cavaliers during the English Civil War. They are supporters of parliamentary England and the name was derived from the short bowl-shaped haircuts.
Oliver Cromwell Puritan general who helped lead parliamentary forces during the English Civil War, and ruled England as Lord Protector from 1653 until his death in 1658.
Restoration (Charles II) - 1660 King of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1660-1685) who reigned during the Restoration, a period of expanding trade and colonization as well as strong opposition to Catholicism
Restoration Colonies colonies established during the Restoration of the English crown; the Carolinas, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware
Navigation Acts laws that restricted American trade with other countries.
Dominion of New England 1686, created by crown (included NY and East and West Jersey) for protection against Indians and to promote English Navigation Laws; inter-colonial alliance imposed by England.
Glorious Revolution Relatively peaceful overthrow of the unpopular Catholic monarch, James II, who was replaced with Dutch-born William III and Mary II, daughter of James II. William and Mary accepted increased parliamentary oversight and new limits on monarchical authority.
Triangle Trade the exchange of rum, slaves, and molasses between the North American colonies, Africa, and the West Indies; a small but immensely profitable subset of the Atlantic trade
Mercantilism an economic system (Europe in 18th) to increase a nation's wealth by government regulation of all of the nation's commercial interests
New England Town Meetings Focus of NE politics. Allowed all adult males in communities to participate in governing. New England system would not work well in cities with large populations.
Poor Richard's Alamanac 1732-39-widely read annual pamphlet edited by Benjamin Franklin; best known for its proverbs and aphorisms emphasizing thrift, industry, morality and common sense
John Peter Zenger Trial 1735-the New York libel case against John Peter Zenger; established the principle that truthful statements abut public officials could not be prosecuted as libel
Manumission After the revolution there was a large increase in this, which is the voluntary freeing of slaves. Laws became more strict against this with slave uprisings.
Created by: desilva13