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Reading Terms

CSET terms

TermDefinition
Phoneme The smallest part of spoken language that makes a difference in meaning. English has about 41. Sometimes one is represented by more than one number.
Phoneme Manipulation When children are working with phonemes. Types are blending phonemes, segmenting words, deleting phonemes from words, or substituting phonemes for another to make new word.
Grapheme The smallest part of written language that represent a phoneme in th spelling of a word. Examples: b,d,f,p,s (letters) or several letters together (sh, th, ck, ea, igh).
Phonics The understanding that there is a predictable relationship between letter and sounds. Good instruction includes systematic and explicit parts.
Phonemic Awareness The ability to hear identify, and manipulate the individual sound in spoken words. It is the understanding that sound work together to make words, and it is the most important determinant toward becoming a successful reader.
Phonolgical Awareness A broad term that includes phonemic awareness, in addition to phonemes, activities can involve work with rhymes and words, syllables, and onset and rimes.
Syllable A word part that contains a vowel or, in spoken language, a vowel sound .
Decoding The analysis of spoken or written symbols in order to understand their meaning
Segementing When children break words into their individual phonemes. Also when they break words into syllables and syllables into onset and rimes
Onset and Rime Parts of spoken language that are smaller than syllables but larger that phonemes. One is the initial consonant sound of a syllable. The other is the part of a syllable that contains the vowel and all that follows it (b-ag, sw-im)
Blending When children combine individual phonemes to form words. They also are blending when they combine onset and rimes to make syllable and combine syllables to make words.
Morpheme A unit of meaning that cannot be divided into smaller elements, such as the word "book".
Semantics Semantics is the analysis and study of meaning of words, phrases, and sentences, This is useful as a strategy in decoding to analyze the word that "sounds" correct a sentence.
Syntax Syntax is the examination of various ways that words combine to create meaning, the study of how sentences are formed, and the pattern or structure of word order in sentences. Word order.