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HuG Ch.10

Human Geography Chapter 10 Development

Commodity Chain Series of links connecting the many places of production and distribution and resulting in a commodity that is exchanged on the world market.
Developing With response to a country, making progress in technology, production, and socioeconomic welfare
Gross National Product The total value of all goods and serviced produced b a country's economy in a given year. It includes all goods and serviced produced by corporations and individuals of a country; wether or not they are located within the country.
Gross National Income Calculates the monetary worth of what is produced within a country plus income received from investments outside the country, as a more accurate way of measuring a country's wealth in the context of a global economy.
Per Capita GNI The Gross National Product of a given country divided by its population.
Formal Economy The legal economy tat is axed and monitored by a government and is included in a government's Gross National Product; as opposed to an informal economy
Informal Economy Economic activity that is neither taxed nor monitored by a government; and is not included in that government's Gross National Product; as opposed to a formal economy.
Modernization Model Associated with economist Walter Rostow. Modernization model maintains that all countries go through 5 interrelated stages of development, which culminate in an economic state of self-sustained economic growth and high levels of mass consumption.
Context The geographical situation in which something occurs; the combination of what is happening at a variety of scales concurrently
Neocolonialism The entrenchment of the colonial order, such as trade and investment, under a new guise.
Structuralist Theory A general term for a model of economic development that treats economic disparities among countries or regions as the result of historically derived power relations within the global economic system.
Dependency Theory Structuralist theory that critiques mod. model of. Based on idea that certin types of pol.cal & eco.mic relations esp. colonialism, btween countries &regions of world have created arrangements that both control&limit da xtent 2 which regions can develop.
Dollarization When a poorer country ties the value of tis currency to that of a wealthier country, or when i abandons its currency and adopts the wealthier country's currency as its own.
World-Systems Theory Theory originated by Immanuel Wallerstein and illuminated by his three-tier structure, proposing that social change in the developing world is inextricably linked to the economic activities of the developed world.
Three-Tier Structure With reference to Immanuel Wallerstein's world-system's theory, the divisions of the world into the core, the periphery, and the semi-periphery as means to help explain the interconnections between places in the global economy.
Trafficking When a family sends a child or an adult to a labor recruiter in hope that the labor recruiter will send money, and the family member will earn more money to send home.
Structural Adjustment Loans Loans granted by international financial institutions *World Bank 2 countries in periphery&semi periphery in xchange 4 certin eco.mic&governmntal reforms in that country EX privatization of certin gov.ment entities&opening country2forin trade&investment
Vectored Diseases A disease carried from one host to another by an intermediate host.
Malaria Vectored Disease spread by mosquitoes that carry the malaria parasite in their saliva and which kills approximately 150000 children in the global periphery each year.
Export Processing Zones Zones established by many countries in the periphery and semi-periphery where they offer favorable tax, regulatory, and trade arrangements to attract foreign trade and investment.
Maquiladoras The term given to zones in northern Mexico with factories supplying manufactured goods to the U.S. market. The low-wage workers in the primarily foreign-owned factories assemble imported components and/or raw materials and then export finished goods.
Special Economic Zones the specific area within a country in which tax incentives and less stringent environmental regulations are implemented to attract foreign business.
North American Free Trade Agreement Agreement entered into by Canada, Mexico, and the United States in December 1992 and which took effect on January 1, 1994 to eliminate the barriers to trade in, and facilitate the cross-border movement of goods and services between the countries.
Desertification Encroachment of desert conditions on moister zones along desert margins, where plant cover & soils r threatened by desiccation-through overuse, by humans & their domestic animals, &, possibly, becuz of inexorable shifts in Earth's environmental zones.
Island of Development Place built up by a government or corporation to attract foreign investment and which has relatively high concentrations of paying jobs and infrastructure.
Nongovernmental Organizations International organizations that operate outside of the formal political arena but that are nevertheless influential in spearheading international initiatives on social, economic, and environmental issues.
Microcredit Program Program that provides small loans to poor people, especially women, to encourage development of small businesses.
Created by: p.f.s.donuts