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Skeletal System

Skeletal System Includes bones, cartililages, joints, and other connective tissues.
Properties of Skeletal System Support, storage, blood cell production, protection, movement.
Osseous Tissue (bone) a supporting tissue that has specialized cells and a matrix consisting of extracellular protein fibers and a ground substance.
Bone Texture From decomposition of calcium salts within matrix.
Calcium Phosphate 2/3 of bone weight
Collogen FIbers 1/3 of bone weight.
Diaphysis Long central shaft of long bones.
Ephyses The head of a long bone covered in articular cartiledges, this is where growth occurs.
Compact Bone Solid, usually where stresses come from a limited range of directions. Osteons are only in this type of bone!
Spongy Bone (cancellous) a network of bony rods or struts (trabecular) separated by spaces. Reduce weight of skeleton, makes it easier for muscles to move bones.
Trabeculae Bony rods in spongy bones.
Endosteum Covers spongy bone marrow cavity inside the bone, active during cellular growth and repair,
Osteocytes Present in both spongy and compact bones. Found in lacunae between lamellae.
Lacunae small pockets osteocytes are in bone spongy or compact
Lamellae In narrow sheets in lacunae in osteocytes
Canaliculi Branch off lacunae of spongy bone, where nutrients and waste diffuse between marrow and osteocytes. Small channels radiate through matrix, interconnecting lacunae and linking them to nearby blood vessels. They have cytoplasmic extensions of osteocytes,
Osteon The basic functional unit of a COMPACT BONE. Inside osteocytes and are arranged in concentric layers around a perforating canal that contains 1 or more blood vessels. Lamellae are arranged parallel to the long axis of central canal.
Perforating Canals (Haversian Canal) prove passage ways for linking the blood vessels of the central canals with those of the periosteum and the marrow cavity.
Joint Capsoles Articular cartilages protect opposing surfaces on the inside.
Three Primary Bone Cells Osteocytes, Osteoclasts, and Osteoblasts
Osteoclasts Dissolve the bony matrix. Giant cells with 50 or more nuclei. Release stored minerals through osteolysis, helps regulate phosphate and calcium in body fluids.
Osteoblasts Cells responsible for production of new bone = Ossification! Makes a new bone matrix and promotes deposition of calcium salts in organic matrix. Creating an osteocyte.
Ossification The replacement of cartilage with bone, during development. Deposits of calcium happen during this. Active Process.
Intramembraneous Ossification Bone develops within sheets of membranes of connective tissues, in deep dermis. Process begins in ossification center. How flat bones are made.
Endochondral Ossification How most skeletal bones are made. First cartilage is formed in embryo, bones start to solidify at 6 weeks old, peaks during puberty, and ends around 25 years old.
Ephysal Closure End of bone growth.
Appositional Growth When a bone grows longer it also grows wider, when cells of periosteum develop into osteoblasts and produce bony matrix. Marrow cavity grows as osteoblasts erode inner surface.
Essential bone growth nurtrients Calcium, Vitamin D3, Vitamin A, Vitamin C
Axial Skeleton 80 bones. 20 in skull, 7 associate bones, 6 auditory ossicles, hyoid bone, 24 thoracic cage (rib cage) with sternum, and 26 bones in vertebral column
Appendicular Skeleton 126 bones. 32 upper limb, 31 lower limb, pelvic and pectoral girdles.
Bone Shapes Long, short, flat, and irregular.
Axial Skeleton Functions Protects brain, spinal chord, and organs in the subdivisions of ventral body cavity, Provides surface are for attachment of muscles that adjust head, neck, and trunk. Helps perform respiratory movements, and stabilizes the appendicular skeleton.
Skull Bones: 8 cranium (encloses cranial cavity), 14 face, 7 additional, 6 auditory ossicles (little tinies for sound), enclosed in temporal and hyoid bones.
Cranium (point to bones on yourself and name them) Frontal, Parietal, Occipital, Temporal, Sphenoid, Ethmoid,
Bones of the Face Maxillae, Palatine, Vomer, Zygomatic, Nasal, Lacrimal, Inferior Nasal Conche, Mandible, and Hyoid
Fontanelles Fibrous connective tissue that connects cranial bones at birth.
Vertebral Column Spine bones: 26; 24 vertebrae, 1 sacrum, 1 coccyx,
Name Spinal Curves and how many vertebrae 7 Cervical, 12 Thoracic, 5 Lumbar (longest vertebra), embryonic vertebrae sacrum and fused vertebrae coccyx.
When are all spinal curves developed by? 10
How many pairs of ribs are there? 12 pairs, 7 true ribs, 8-10 are fused together, and last two pairs are floating.
Why is sternal angle susceptible to damage during CPR?
Common treatment for fractured ribs?
What bone developed irregularly to produce a cliff palate?
What bones provide support to the heart?
Compound Fracture
Pectoral Girdle Shoulder girdle, 2 flat scapula, 2 clavicles.
Upper Limb Bones (point where they are) Humerus, Radius, Ulna, Olecranon
Bones of Wrist and Hand 27 bones: 8 Carpal, 5 metacarpal, 14 phalanges. 4 fingers have 3 phalanges, thumb (polex) has 2
Pelvic Girdle 2 hips (coxals) of fused ilium, ischium, and pubis. Pelvis, 2 hip bones, sacrum, and coccyx.
Lower Limb Identify Femur, Tibia, Patella, Tarsus, Fibula
Joints Articulations where two bones meet. 3 types; fibers, cartilages, and synovial.
Fibers and Cartileges Joints The type of connective tissue binding them together, no or slight movement. Amphiarthrosis and Synarthrosis.
Synovial Surrounded by fibers tissue, and the ends of bones are covered by cartilage that prevents bones to bone contact. Free movement. Synchondrosis, Syndesmosis, Symphysis. At ends of long bones.
Synarthrosis Immovable joint, suture bound by tissue.
Amphiarthrosis Slightly moveable joint,
Diarthrosis (synovial joint) freely movable.
Synchrondrosis A rigid, cartilages connection, Synovial joint.
Syndesmosis A fiberous joint connected by ligament; synovial joint
Symphysis Cartilages joint, separated by disc or pad of fibrocartilage (vertebrae in spine).
Menisci Additional Shock absorption in knee.
Bursae Small pockets of connective tissue containing synovial fluid. Form to reduce friction and act as shock absorbers where tendons or ligaments rub against other tissues.
Gliding Joint Two opposing surfaces slide past each other, slight movement
Ball and Socket Joints
Flexion In anterior-posterior place, decreases angle between articulating bones
Extension Increases angle of articulating bones.
Abduction Movement away from longitudinal axis, always in appendicular skeleton.
Adduction Movement towards anatomical position
Rotation Turning around a longitudinal axis of body or limb
Pronation Palm Forward to palm facing back
Supination Palm facing backwards to facing forwards.
Inversion Twisting of foot inward
Eversion Twisting of foot outward
Dorsal Flexion Flexed foot
Planter Flexion Pointed foot
Oposition Thumb toward palm
Reposition Thumb away from palm
Elevation Move superiorly and inferiorly. movements of jaw.
Protraction Movement anteriorly or inwards
Retraction Movement posteriorly.
Lateral Flexion When vertebral column bends to side,
Condyle Smooth Articular head of bone.
Created by: iessnorris



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