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Cell Structure

Elements Cannot be changed or broken down.
Atom The smallest stable unit of matter.
Protons Positive charge, in the nucleus.
Neutrons Neutral charge, in the nucleus.
Electrons Negative charge, light, in electron shell.
Atomic Number Number of protons in atom.
Isotopes Atoms of a specific element that differ in neutrons. Presence or absence of neutrons has no effect on atoms properties. Some are stable some are radioactive.
Mass Number How to differentiate isotopes; the total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus.
Atomic Weight Average mass of an atom, takes into account the mas of subatomic particles.
Electron Shells First shell = 2, second shell = 8, third shell =
Chemical Bonds Produces molecules and compounds.
Molecule Contain more than one atom bonded together by shared electrons.
Compound Made up of 2 or more elements, regardless of type of bond joining them.
Ions Atoms or molecules with an electrical charge
Cations Ions with a positive charge
Anions Ions with a negative charge
Ionic bond Chemical bonds created by electrical attraction between anions and cations. Through loss and gaining of electrons, atoms create opposite charges and are attracted to each other (____ bonding).
Covalent Bond A bond created through the sharing of valance electrons.
Non-Polar Covalent Bond When electrons are shared evenly and the atoms remain electrically neutral.
Polar-Covalent Bond Unequal sharing of atoms of different elements creating slightly opposing charges.
Hydrogen Bond The attraction of a slight positive charge bond, and a weak negative charge (weak bond).
Surface Tension Attraction between water molecules at a free surface slows the rate of evaporation.
Chemical Reaction New chemical bonds form between atoms or existing bonds between atoms are broken. These changes occur when reactants are rearranged to form different products.
Reactants Atoms in the reacting substance
Products The rearrangement of atoms into new molecules.
Enzymes Special molecules that help speed up reactions. Promote chemical reactions by lowering the activation energy requirements.
Catalyst Accelerate chemical reactions without themselves being permanently changed.
Exergonic Reactions Reactions that release energy.
Endergonic Reactions that absorb energy.
Inorganic Compounds Small molecules that do not contain carbon or hydrogen atoms. Not living.
Organic Compounds Living. Primarily composed of carbon and hydrogen.
H20 In the Human Body Essential reactant in chemical reactions of living systems, has very high heat capacity, an excellent solvent.
Ph The concentration of hydrogen ions, 0-14 scale. 7 contains an equal number of hydrogen and hydroxide ions.
Acid Any substance that breaks apart in a solution to release hydrogen ions (hydrogen ions = protons).
Base A substance that removes hydrogen ions from a solution.
Carbohydrates An organic molecule that contains carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio 1:2:1, 1% of total body weight.
Monosaccharide A carbohydrate & simple sugar. Containing from 3-7 carbon atoms. Ex: glucose, most important metabolic fuel.
Disacharide Two monosaccharides, soluble in water, must be broken down before absorption through hydrolyses.
Polysaccharides Large carbohydrate molecules, made through dehydration synthesis. Ex: glycogen, made up of glucose molecules.
Lipids Fat, contain carbon, hydrogen, and a little oxygen. Oils and waxes, insoluble in water, Important in energy reserves. 2x the energy of carbs. When ____ outweigh use, stored as fat.
Fatty Acids Long chains of carbon atoms with hydrogen atoms at the end (carboxyl groups), which dissolves in water.
Saturated Fatty Acids Has a single covalent bond, solid at room temperature.
Unsaturated Fatty Acids Double covalent bond, causes a bend in the molecule, liquid at room temperature.
Tryglyceride A glycerol molecule is attached to three fatty acids. Most common fats in the body.
Steroids Large lipid molecules composed of four connected rings of carbon atoms. Ex: chloresterol.
Phospholipids 1 glycerol and 2 fatty acids linked to a non lipid group by a phosphate group. The non-lipid part is in the water, the fatty acid portion is unsaluable. Most abundant in cell membranes.
Proteins Most abundant organic compounds of the human body. 20% of total weight. Contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. Provides support, movement, transport, buffering, metabolic regulation (enzymes), defense, and antibodies. 100 or more amino acids.
Amino Acids Building blocks of proteins, 20 different _______ in body. Has a central carbon atom bonded to a hydrogen atom, an amino group, a carboxyl group, and a variable R group (releases hydrogen ions).
Denaturation Irreversible alteration in three-dimensional structure of a protein.
Substrates Reactions in an enzyme reaction, interact with enzyme to make a product.
Activation Site Where substrates must ind at specific region of enzyme.
Nucleic Acid Large organic molecules composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and phosphorus. Store information and process it, inside cells.
DNA Determines characteristics, affects all aspects of body structure and function. Encodes information needed to build proteins. Controls shape and appearance of our bodies. Regulates protein synthesis, cellular metabolism, creation/destruction of lipids.
Double Helix Double strings of nucleatides held by hydrogen bonds.
RNA Manufacture specific protein using information provided by DNA, Single chain of nucleotides.
Nucleotides Subnits of nucleic acids. Contain a phosphate group ( five carbon sugar), and a nitrogenous base.
Nitrogenous Bases Adenine (A), guanine, (G), Thymine (T), Cytosine (C), Uracil (U). U only in RNA, T only DNA.
ATP Has the nucleotide adensine monophosphate and 2 phosphate groups. Energy subnit.
Created by: iessnorris



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