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yes renaissance

chapter one test woohooo pt 2

Florence -had the arno river, quick access to coast -wealth from quality wool industry, controlled papal banking system (the first modern banking system) -ruled by the Medici -pretty stable, barely fazed by issues like the plague or labor revolts
Venice -wealth from trade with Turks + East -port city
Milan -traded w/ middle east + n. europe -at crossroads btwn east + west -harsh Sforza family
Communes -northern italian cities -consisted free men seeking financial independence from local nobles + merchant guilds that maintained walls, trade, taxes, order. (middle class dominated) -flourished bc of trade -invented concept of DIPLOMACY
Urban Nobility -new social class -rural nobility + mercantilist aristocracy from communes intermarry to expand territorial gains
Popolo -people on the street who occasionally revolt against the nobility bc of unfair taxes/exclusion from representation -formed "republics" but those lost power quickly bc THEY excluded THEIR inferiors wtf same
Signori leaders of communes, republics on paper but oligarchies in actuality
Girolama Savonarola 1452-1492 -christian asf -believed luxury was pagan and corrupt -led a revolt that overthrew the medicis, then ran florence for a bit, but he made everything really lame so he was executed lol -point is, not everybody was digging this new urban nobility class
Charles VIII (France) -invades italy, which isn't really a state as of now btw, just a peninsula full ofvulnerable lil states -actually a lot of people try to invade. and europe is a mess in general. cue the habsburg-valois wars that began on italian grounds
Why did the Ren. start in Italy? -lots of economic prosperity -at natural trade crossroads -cool ships -ARTSY
The Balance of Power (Italy) -vulnerable to attack because no unity -when one state appeared to become predominant in power, other states combined to balance the threat
Francesco Petrarch 1304-1374 -"father of humanism" -believed he was living in the "beginning of light after a long gothic gloom"; he's special because he's AWARE of this turning point in human history -the roman empire/Pax Romana = peak of humanity
Indvidualism -opposed the middle age christian humility -stressed personality, uniqueness, genius, potential -people were driven by thirst for fame (aka secular immortality) -diversity is cool! let's glorify it! -self portraits, signatures -DaVinci = epitome
Benvenuto Cellini was hecka aware of his genius and wrote about it so the world would appreciate it
Humanism -leo bruni said, let's learn more about human nature, instead of god -worldly appreciation -emphasized that men were created in god's image -our duty is to reach our max. potential (motivates eloquence)
Pico della Mirandola said that man was created in god's image, which is in the freaking genesis fyi. we're the closest thing to god on this earth and therefore we are cool as heck
Secularism -life is important now; it's not just a waiting room to go to heaven -materialism, pleasure
Lorenzo Valla -wrote "On Pleasure" -said that pleasures aren't sinful, they're the stuff that makes life worth living -wrote "On the False Donation of Constantine," where he exposed that the document that gave pope authority was fake
Giovanni Boccaccio -wrote "Decameron," which portrayed an acquisitive/worldly society that justified wealth+pleasure
Pope Julius II -commissioned massive beautification projects; tore down the old St. Peter's Basilica -papal interests supported this new worldly attitude
Renaissance art -led by Florence -classical balance, harmony, restraint -used to boast wealth -secular -realistic/detailed
Leonardo DaVinci (1452-1519) -The Last Supper = psychological depiction (people's reactions) -Painter, sculptor, architect, scientist -studied anatomy
Michelangelo (1475-1564) -Marble David -Sistine Chapel Ceiling
Raphael (1483-1520) -self portraits -castiglione's portrait (the "gentleman") -school of athens with all the cool greek philosophers -secularism
Filippo Brunelleschi -built cathedral dome -cool architect
Lorenzo Ghiberti -bronze doors (Gates of Paradise) of Baptistry
Giotto (1276-1337) -florentine painter who paved the path to the trend of realism
Donatello (1386-1466) -his statues celebrated variety of human nature -emphasized self-awareness -Bronze David (century before michelangelo)
Masaccio (1401-1428) -"father of modern painting" -used INTERNATIONAL STYLE = new style with realism/narrative power/effective contrast -Expulsion from the Garden = first nudes since greco/roman times
Piero della Francesca (1420-92) -pioneered linear perspective -lots of portraits, stressed indvidualism
Vergerio -education and virtue -education's purpose = leadership training, we need leaders willing to sacrifice to make society better -history, rhetoric, ethics = key faculties -SOCIETAL IMPROVEMENT
Baldassare Castiglione -wrote The Courtier -believed that when a man is well-rounded ,he becomes the ideal gentleman -he should be able to form ideas from other ideas -INDVIDUAL SELF IMPROVEMENT
Niccolo Machiavelli -wrote The Prince -empirical perspective: rulers should be realistic -treat the way things are, not how they ought to be -lion + fox metaphor: learn when to be merciless and sly/witty -he's not advocating barbaric behavior lol
Johann Gutenberg, Johann Fust, Peter Schoffer -helped create movable type, which changed communication and types of literacy e.g. Peitro Aretino's sonnets with engravings of porn hahaha -bridged gap between written+oral cultures
Sofonisba Anguissola and Artemisia Gentileschi renowned painters
Isabella Andreini renowned actress
Laura Cereta (1469-99) -classical education through elite father -was able to become a scholar after widowed -believed women's inferiority came from women themselves...not divine authority
Women -educating a women was "against the nature of things" :p -girls were mainly just decorative and useful at home (attracted artists/literati to her husband's court) -the courtier outlined double standards in sex -lots of female infanticide
Black Africans -came to w. europe as slaves especially in 1400s -LOTS in portugal -were "rare", therefore sought after -ownership of slaves = wealthy -wanted them "as shapely and black as possible" wtffff -traditionally black/darkness represented the underworld
Christian Humanism -classical ideals + christian ideals, to give rational faculty a moral compass
Jacques Lefevre d'Etaples -one of the first to apply humanism to religion -believed solid education in Scriptures would increase piety
Thomas More (England) -wrote Utopia, an ideal community on an island with education in classics + intellectual activities, social equality, casual use of gold/silver -said private property caused civil disorder
Desiderius Erasmus (The Netherlands) -wrote The Adages, Education of a Christian Prince, The Praise of Folly which satirized church issues -said that education is key to moral improvement, and that we should focus more on true Christianity aka Christ's teachings, not formalities/laws
Francois Rabelais (France) -wrote Gargantua + Pantagruel, satirized hypocritical monks, super gross, "secular flavor", believed in goodness of humans
Rogier van der Weyden & Jan van Eyck (1300s-1400s) -artistic equals to Italian Renaissance painters -Eyck used oil-based paint -shows <3 for detail
Jerome Bosch -Flemish painter -religious themes + grotesque fantasies -reflected confusion + anguish of the end of the middle ages
Charles VII (1422-61) -revived the monarchy -strengthened finances through the gabelle and taille -reformed the justice system -remodeled army, the first permanent royal army!!
Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges -asserted a council's superiority over papacy -gave the Crown control over bishop appointments/deprived pope of revenue -established liberties, gave the crown special rights
"Spider King" Louis XI (1461-83) -promoted new industries like silk weaving -welcomed foreign tradesmen to work for him -entered commercial treaties with other countries -severe taxation to improve army -relied on middle class (so typical new monarch) -added Burgundy + Brittany
Concordat of Bologna 1516 -treaty btwn King Francis I & Pope Leo X -pope gets first year's income of new bishops/abbots (lots of land) -king gets right to select bishops/abbots -now crown controls appointments, policies, and basically the entire church
War of the Roses 1455-71 -civil war btwn York and Lancaster -only a small minority of the country but -disorder hurt trade, agriculture, and industry -sank monarch power
Edward IV (1461-83) -established tranquility, defeated Lancaster forces, consolidated monarchy, restored royal prestige -used Machiavellian principles -used diplomacy from trade bc they couldnt afford to sacrifice more power to parliament for $
Henry VII (1485-1509) -helped cloth industry boom -set a royal export tax on wool -established peace with Scotland -set up Court of Star Chamber
Royal Council -center of royal authority -mostly middle class -they handled negotiations, secured international recognition of the Tudors, prepared laws for parliament
Court of Star Chamber -set up to target aristocratic threats -barbaric asf and opposed the common law...but at least it was effective eh?
Reconquista -attempts of northern Christian kingdoms to control Iberia who wanted political control of the South drove out the Moroccan Muslims (moors) who ruled spain -ok Iberia was super diverse tho there was no common culture
Ferdinand + Isabella (r. 1474-1516) -marriage = unified/christianized Castile + Aragon -Spain was still a bunch of separate states -strengthened royal authority -got the right to appoint bishops in Spain + American territories -their army continued the Reconquista conquered Grenada
Cortes -the parliament, laws, courts, and taxation/coinage systems that governed a single Spanish province
Hermandades -"brotherhoods" -given authority to act as local police forces/judges to their lil province -responsible for raising their troops and punishing criminals
Royal Council -given lots of power by F+I -objective = expel nobility and leave them powerless -supervised local authorities -pretty middle class
Conversos -Jews who converted to Catholicism -sometimes held high positions in church -became disproportionately influential, their conversion was doubted, some actually converted back, people got mad at this
Inquisition -punishment of non-Christians -unifying force in Spain -ensured Catholic faith was pure -lots of torture involved -expulsion of jews and muslims -preferred "purity" in the Spanish state
Charles V -lucky mofo who ended up acquiring a heck of a lot of land
Created by: eunbinchoi