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not renaissance

chapter one test woohooo

Shires counties/districts, separated so that kings could more effectively rule regions e.g. Yorkshire (Anglo-Saxon times)
Sheriffs shire officials who collected orders from the king (Anglo-Saxon times)
Writs legal orders (Anglo-Saxon times)
Inquest the grand-jury~ish institution (Anglo-Saxon times)
William the Conqueror/Duke of Normandy/Later King William I -carried out the Norman Conquest via his army and afterwards established control of England (only as a side job tho lmao) -replaced existing sheriffs with Normans -paid for army w/ taxes that were high enough to work but not too high to provoke riots
Domesday Book -used to record who owns what, who lives where -used so king could make accurate/fair tax rates -first recorded "census" -info is powerful tbh
Finance Exchequer -medieval equivalent of the U.S. treasury dept -collected/audited royal accounts
Common Law -a communal set of laws for the entire kingdom to decrease chaos/decentralization -carried out by royal courts with royally appointed judges -depended on legal precedent
King John -often fought with French kings in an attempt to seize France -caused English nobles to be soooo done with their shit, STOP INVADING FRANCE, they said -and then he pettily started jailing nobles for their money
Magna Carta -document created by the church that says the king isn't above anybody -solidified concept of trial-by-jury -included the clause that said the king can't tax w/o consent of the common council -made England a CONSTITUTIONAL/LIMITED MONARCHY
Modern State includes -communication for public order -revenue/bureaucracy -definite boundaries, recognition from other states -has laws/institutions -protects citizens -currency
Saint-Denis symbol of political/religious charisma, used on flags during battles, etc; King Louis VI was "roi (king) de _____" because it was his main controlling territory; established deep patriotism/loyalty/faith; encouraged centralization
Ballais/Seneschals royally appointed officials sent from Paris to local provinces to act for the king, collect taxes, etc.; were never natives because they couldn't own land; perpetuated the idea that royal interest > loyal interest in the eyes of the king
Medieval France -kept expanding through diplomacy, marriage, war, inheritance -centralized, relatively -pretty strong -ABSOLUTE MONARCHY = king had absolute power
Frederick Barbarossa of Hohenstanfen (Germany) -tried to unify the holy roman empire, used Swabia as a power base, required allegiance from vassals, appointed ministerials to govern districts, forbade warfare -failed because greed for italian wealth and his brutality caused revolts -u tried
Ways Henry I (England) got $ for armies Dona (gift from church), fines from criminals, Relief (tax paid by an inheritor), Scutage ($ from knights)
Barons (of the exchequer) financial officials that kept records, became their own band of people with rules+procedures, the first bureaucracy of England
Tallage/Taille (France) tax ordered by the king to townpeople, military obligations in lieu of $ were Host tallage, antisemitism taxed the jewish more heavily, rates were pretty arbitrary unlike in England
Reasons why Germany wasn't able to unify like England and France Emperor vs. Roman papacy controversy left people divided into hundred of independent provinces, no royal "headquarters" for revenue/planning, no succession rules=each death of an emperor led to war, greed for Italy, constant civil wars for power
Louis IX sent royal judges out to keep on eye on the Ballais and Seneschals, published a law code
Parliament of Paris the highest court (of appeals) in France, established under Louis IX
Estates General -was supposed to be like the English Parliament with 3 representational groups - the church, the nobility, and the commoners - each getting a single vote. not proportional at all tho wtf and only met when king called a gathering sooo thanks for sharing
Gabelle (France) tax on salt
Push factors for urbanization population increase, increased food supply, political stability. Some towns started as army camps or seaport cities that had been vulnerable to muslim attacks/domestic warfare, but restored order promoted growth
Boroughs fortified towns against viking invasions, merchants were interestedin them because they had potential customers
Faubourgs/Suburbs "outside" shelter within walls (concentric), e.g. Ghent
Cathedrals/Monasteries had schools and attracted students from far away
Medieval Towns -enclosed by walls ("burg/burgh") -marketplace and mint -when cramped, walls would just be rebuilt -made aristocracies suspicious but they traded w/ them anyway bc their markets were cool -slowly developed their own laws/institutions
Liberties special privileges like living+trading on the lord's land and personal freedom, given to merchants who stayed in the town for a year and a day, led to emancipation of serfs, = citizenship, = don't have to pay taxes/tolls = increased profits
Law Merchant law that dealt with transactions, debt, bankruptcy, sales, contracts
Guilds association of merchants or artisans/etc. who determined quantity/quality/price of goods, self-governing, created order within transactions -guild leaders became powerful, bargained w/ lords/kings for independence
Customs arbitrary taxes kings would levy on serfs to make it look like they were granting independence but were getting money out of it
Trade -was considered risky (robbery, shipwrecks) at first, but -investors began to share profits to fund expeditions, led by Venice and Flanders -English+Flanders developed a close bond: English wool, Flemish manufacturing = booming cloth industry
Commercialization -opening of trading + transportation offices, credit, CAPITALISTIC MINDSET: surplus = more opportunities, competition -wealth=higher standard of living=changed diet, table manners -taxes helped centralize -ended the isolatatedness of the middle ages
Hanseatic League -mutual protection treaty btwn Lubeck + Hamburg, guaranteed mutual security, exclusive trading rights, etc. -more cities joined throughout the century -controlled trade over the Baltic + North Sea and N. Europe in general
Factories foreign trading centers with offices, a church, residential spaces for representatives
The Business Register public records of debts/contracts for credit in the League, required aggressive tactics to be effective (there's that capitalistic spirit again)
Hundred Years' War background french nobles who were kings of england wanted to be kings of france too, so they fought for power, and the English lose all of their land in France (except Calais) but its for the best tbh because now they can focus on England full time!!
Hundred Years' War impact -french pop. declines because shit agriculture/disease -intense debt: france taxes the peasants, english kings sacrifice authority to parliament for $ -naval battles in english channel hurt the wool trade -rise of patriotism, national literature
French Jacquiere and English Wat Tyler leaders of peasant revolts against the high taxes
Black Death -ty rats from china -first case 1347 -pop. decline -advantage to surviving peasants bc society needs labor = end of serfdom in w. europe -some towns quarantined, nice -jews weren't as affected (bc they had good hygiene) = increased antisemitism
Flagellants -whiped themselves and traveled from town to town to emphasize catholicism
Problems with the Church -corruption -moneymaking scheme asf -in love with those good estates -caused the public to lose respect -btw nowhere in the bible outlines papal authority
Simony bulying/selling church positions
Pluralism holding more than one position
Absenteeism not where you're supposed to be/not doing what you're supposed to be doing
Immorality not taking vows of poverty/celibacy seriously (or at all)
John Wycliff (England, 1320-84) -said that the church needs to stop being so corrupt and the bible should be the only authority -translated the Bible to English -ended up getting executed, yikes
John Huss (Bohemia/CR, 1307-77) -said let's have a general church council w/ representatives from all over Europe be the tru rulers, and not the pope -executed, yikes
Babylonian Capitivity (1307-77) -Philip IV of France kidnapped the pope, causing Avignon to become the church HQ for a bit -europeans get sick of Philip's shit -causes a bunch of chaos
Great Schism 1377-1415 -church splits into 3 parts because there's 3 guys (one from germany, italy, and france) considered the pope -weakens the church like heck
Conciliar Movement -clergymen advocated for the church council being above the pope
Council of Constance the council that the pope decided to bring together in 1415, finally brought the church together
Created by: eunbinchoi