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Medical Assistant

Study Guide

Oma tumor
chondro/o cartilage
cide destroying, killing
cidal destroying, killing
oligo deficiency
centesis surgical puncture
ectasis dilation, expansion
penia deficiency
lysis destruction of
plegia paralysis
trophy nourishment or growth
oid resembeling
stenosis narrowing, constricture
opia vision
phage eating, swallowing
ole small
ule small
pepsia digestion
ia condition
ism condition
edema swelling
rrhexis rupture
en within, inner
endo within, inner
intra within, inner
plasia formation, growth
plasm formation, growth
tripsy crushing
emesis vomiting
lith stone
osis ad-normal condition
tibi/o tibia
hemi half
tox poisonouse
ad towards
ab away from
multi many
mal bad, inadequate
ec out, outside
ecto out, outside
my/o muscle
hypo below, beneath
sub below, beneath
infra below, beneath
ex away from, external
extra away from, external
ia pertaining to
ic pertaining to
vertebr/o vertebrea
poly much
tendin/o tendon
crani/o cranium
pelv/i pelvis
metacarp/o metacarpus
ten/o tendon
hyper excessive, above
supra excessive, above
ar pertaining to
ary pertaining to
ical pertaining to
ory pertaining to
cervic/o neck
femor/o femur
fibul/o fibual
humer/o humerus
dorsal back, posterior
lamin/o lamina
oste/o bone
patell/o patella
lumb/o lower back
phalang/o phalanges
abduction movement away from the body
epi above, upon
uria urine
emia a condition of the blood
iso same, equal
cyte cell
ectomy excision, surgical removal
neo new
post after, following
ultra beyond
circum around
dys painful, difficult
pre before
macro large
micro small
quadri four
tachy rapid
tri three
uni one
superior above or nearer to the head
algia pain
superficial near the surface of the body
adduction movement towards the body
distal further from the origin or point of attachment
myel/o spinal cord, bone marrow
cost/o ribs
deep further into the body
inferior beneath or nearer to the feet
posterior towards or near the back, dorsal
ventral front, anterior
tic pertaining to
inter between
scope instrument used to view
scopy visual examination
metry measurement
meter instrument for measuring
graph recording instrument
graphy process of recording
gram record
anterior towards or near the front, ventral
proximal nearer to the origin or point of attachment
dynia pain
genesis creating, producing
rrhea flow, discharge
therapy treatment
derma skin
parasis sight or partial paralysis
logy study of
media towards the mid line nearer to the middle
eu good, normal
lateral away from the mid line towards the side
kinesis movement
kinesia movement
tomy cutting into, incision
tome cutting instrument
rrhapy suture, suturing
clast breaking
clasis breaking
gen creating, producing
logist specialist in the study of
oxia oxagen
pnea breathing
plasty surgical repair
gravida pregnant women
megaly enargement
dipsia thirst
ist specialist
phobia fear
phoria feeling
malacia softening
ptosis drooping, prolapse
anti against
auto self
bi two
brady slow
pause cessation, stopping
stern/o sternum
tend/o tendon
orth/o straight
thorac/c thorax
eal pertaining to
ous pertaining to
tous pertaining to
al pertaining to
ac pertaining to
a without, absence of
an without, absence of
in without, absence of
para beside, near
dia through, across
trans through, across
pathy disease
esthesia sensation
re behind, back
retro behind, back
rrhage bursting forth
rrhagia bursting forth
stasis cessation, stopping
pexy surgical fixation
itis inflammation
phagia speech
cele hernia
iasis pathological condition or state
peri beside, near
microorganism an organism that can be seen without a microscope
pathogen a microorganism that causes illness in humans
non pathogen microorganisms that don't cause illness
contaminated soiled with infectious material
saturated truly soaked with blood or bodily fluids
flaked a chip
biohazard the risk to human health or the enviroment
disinfection the process of killing most pathogenic organisms from surfaces you may use Clorox or Lysol spray
antiseptic process of killing most pathogenic organisms from human tissue you may use iodine or alcohol
sterilization process of destroying all forms of pathogenic organisms by the use of steam, heat, gas via an autoclave
Sanitation hygienic means of promoting health through prevention of human contact with hazardous waste
aseptic technique process used my medical staff to prevent the spread of infections the goal is to reach asepsis
asepsis an environment free of pathogens
sterile technique practice of keeping objects in areas free of microorganisms during a procedure to create a sterile field
OSHA (Occupational Safety and Heath Administration) Government agency that sets guidelines for employers. Responsible for preventing or minimizing work-related injuries.
ASCP (American Society of Clinical Pathologist) Agency responsible for providing phlebotomy certification
CLIA (Clinical & Laboratory Improvement Amendment ) Legislation responsible for regulating all labs and phlebotomist
CDC (Center for Disease Control) Federal agency responsible for monitoring and reporting disease.
NCCLS (National Committee for Clinical Lab Standards) Non-profit organization that sets recommendations, guidelines, and standards for all areas of the lab.
CLSI (Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute) develop guidelines for safety programs regarding labs
General Physical Exam an exam to confirm a patient's health or diagnose a medical problem
accessibility the ease with which people can move in and out of a space
nasal speculum instrument used to enlarge the opening of the nose to permit viewing
spores thick waled reproductive body capable of resisting harsh conditions
otoscope instrument used to inspect the ear
occult blood blood that is not visible to the naked eye
lubricant water soluble gel used during a physical exam of the rectum or vagina
consumable description of items that are used up or empty during exam
fixative chemical spray used to preserve a specimen obtained from the body for pathological exam
ultrasonic cleaning sending sound waves through a cleaning solution to clean delicate instruments
Ophthalmoscope instrument used to examine the interior of the eye
endotracheal tube instrument used to establish an artificial air way
Chemoreceptors receptors such as those found on the nose and on the tongue
papillae bumps on the tongue that contain taste buds
perilymph/endoymph fluids of the labyrinth
auricle the part of the external ear also known as pinna
acoustic neuroma benignant tumor of the cranial nerve
semicircular canals functions to detect the body's balance
rods visual receptors responsible for night vision, detect motion
cones visual receptors responsible for color vision, red blue and green cones within the eyes detect fine detail and color
aqueous humor the watery fluid of the anterior (front) chamber of the eye
vitreous humor the jelly like fluid of the posterior (back) chamber of the eye
cerumen a wax-like substance commonly called ear wax
cochea the snail shaped structure in the ear that contains hearing receptors
conjunctiva mucous membrane that lines the inner surface of the eyelids
otitis interna an inner ear infection
otitis externa condition commonly known as swimmers ears
lysozyme an enzyme in tear that can destroy bacteria and viruses
choroid the middle layer of the eye
ossicles malleus, incus, stapes (smallest bones on the human body)
eustachian tube maintains equal pressure on both sides of the ear drum
labyrinth the system of communication chambers and tube of the inner ear
hypodermis also known as the subcutaneous layer
melanocytes epidermal cells that produce pigment
alopecia term for hair loss baldness
arrector pili the muscle that allows hair to stand erect
keratinocytes cells that produce and accumulate protein in the epidermis
eccrine glands that produce and secrete sweat
verruca a wart
dermatome the skin area innervated by a nerve
apocrine sweat glad commonly activated by stress or nerves
tinea is fungal infection
sphygmomanometer an instrument used to measure blood pressure
gustatory cortex the area of the brain responsible for interpreting taste
refraction the process of bending or focusing light
melenin a pigment that traps UV radiation
vesicle means blister
eczema a chronic skin disorder that is thought to be connected to a underlying inflammatory condition
acne vugaris is a inflammatory skin disorder caused by excess sebum producion
cornea controls and focuses the entry of light into the eye
pupil contracts and dilates to control the amount of light into the eye
iris color part of the eye that controls the movement of the pupil
lens allows the eye to focus
retina receives light and converts it into a message for the brain to form a visual image
sclera what part of the eye muscles assist with movement of the eye
conjunction/conjunctiva provides protection and shape of the eye
myopia because eyeball is too long and the light rays of the retina cause distant objects to appear blurry also known as near sight
hyperopia because eyeball is too short and light rays behind the retina cause objects to be blurry also known as far sight
deuteranapia deficiency of particular cones cause difficulty distinguishing color also known as color blind
snellon chart chart used for eye exam
pinna (outer ear) cassius waves and passes to the ear canal
ear canal provides passageway for sound waves to reach the eardrum
tympanic membrane (middle ear/ eardrum) converts and amplifies vibrations in the air to vibration fluids
vertigo condition in which a person inappropriately experiences the perception of motion
motion sickness condition in which a persons brain perceives movement differently than the eye visualizes the movement
taste buds epithelial cells that allow the tongue to taste sweet, salty, sour, bitter, metals and alkaloids
nares passageway for oxygen to enter body. contains cilia which trap pathogens and foreign bodies from entering the body
septum separates the left and right part of the nose
exudates wound drainage from a wound
serious wound clear and watery
sanguinous wound bloody
purulent wound puss with foul odor
approximation bringing the edges of a wound together may use staples, sutures, or adhesive
5 Rights right patient - right route - right medication - right dose - right time
mucous membrane lines the cavities that are exposed to the external environment secretes mucus which traps pathogens located in the nose ears eyelids genitals and anus
serous membrane layer of cell that secretes a transparent pale yellow fluid reduces friction from movement surrounds the heart lungs and abdominal cavity
cutaneous membrane (skin) protection, regulates body temperature, site for vitamin d production and sensation
synovial membrane soft membrane that secretes a clear thick fluid to lubricate the joints, hips, knees, elbows etc...
epidermis outside layer of skin acts as a barrier to the external environment regulates the amount of water released from the body into the atmosphere through sweat. Thinnest at the eyelids thickest at the palms and soles of feet
dermis inside layer of skin cushions the body from stress and strains
subcutaneous hypothermic layer largely made of adipose (fat) loose connective tissue
accessory organs Hair - nails - oil glands - sweat glands
1st degree burn affects the epidermis
2nd degree burn affects the epidermis and the dirmis
3rd degree burn affects al layers of the skin may even include the bones, adipose and muscle
types of burns heat, cold, electrical, chemical, radiation, friction, inhalation
types of injections intradermal, subcutaneous, intermuscular
5 parts of the vertebrea cervical 7bones thoracic 12bones lumbar 5bones sacrum 5bones coccyx 4bones
6 levels of organizations in humans 1 chemicals 2 cells 3 tissues 4 organs 5 organ system 6 organism
5 cavities of the body cranial (skull brain) thoracic (heart, lungs, esophagus) vertebral (spine, spinal cord) abdominal (liver gallbladder, kidney, pancreas, stomach, intestines) pelvis (bladder, reproductive organs)
Hematoma Most common injury, black and blue needle passes through the vein
Tissue contusion Bruise. Release of blood and fluid caused by the breaking of capillaries
petechia red flat spots caused by appling tourniquet too tight
Hemoconcentration an alteration of ratio in the blood caused by tourniquet applied too for too long
frosthing bubbles that appear in the blood tube due to loose needle, or air escaping from the bevel that has been pulled out of vain
syncope fainting. caused by temporary insufficient blood flow to brain due to stress, fear, changes of blood pressure
diapheratic cold, clammy, pale skin, nausea, lost of hearing
Seizure caused by an interruption of electrical activity of the brain
emesis vomiting
Hemostasis control bleeding
basophil cells releasing heparin and histamines
erythropoietin stimulates bone marrow to produce RBS's
leukocyte WBS
erythrocyte RBC
platelets cells assisting in blood clotting fragments of cells
serum plasma with cells and clotting factor removed
hematocrit measures percentage of RBS's in blood
agglutination clumping of cells
globulins blood proteins
embolus blood clot "on the move"
eosinophil fights virus and parasitic infections
agranulocytes WBS's with no cytoplasmic granules
lymphocyte WBS'c of the immune system
granulocytes neutrophils, eosinohils and basophils with cytoplasmic granules
thrombocytes the other term for platelets
thrombus a blood clot
monocyte destroys bacteria, viruses, and toxins in the blood
fibrinogens plasma substance important in blood clotting
coaguation process of blood clotting
neutrophil phagocytes destroying bacteria, viruses, and toxins
agglutination occurs when there is no match between blood types and RH factors
leukocytosis WBC above normal
Gases dissolved in plasma oxygen, carbon dioxide and nitrogen
Stroke may result if embolus blocks a cerebral artery
Blood type O Universal donor
erythoblastosis fetalis could develop if an RH positive women and a RH negative man have a baby
leukemia cancer of too little WBC in the blood
anemia production of too few RBC in the blood
hemolytic results from RBC destruction
diapedesis the squeezing of a cell through the blood vessel wall
anticubital fossa inside bend of the elbow
middle cubital middle of the arm 1st to access for venipuncture
cephalic vein runs along the thumb side of arm 2nd to access for venipuncture
basilic vein runs along pinky side of arm last vein to access for venipuncture
sclerotic vein hard, narrow, difficult to puncture
torturous vein twisted vein, don't run in a straight line
fragile vein thin, weak, collapse easiy, do not refill quickly
thrombotic vein hard and tender due to blood clots
phlebitic vein tender, warm and red due to inflammation
accreditation process by which a government agency evaluates a program or institution according to established guidelines or standards
aseptic pertaining to a condition that is free of disease-producing microorganisms
battery unlawful act of physical force or contact towards another individual
assault unlawful act of threatening or causing a person to experience fear
capillary smallest of all blood vessels, which allows the exchange of nutrients and oxygen between the cells and blood, capillaries connect arteries to viens
certification process whereby individuals or institutions demonstrate their ability to perform at or above a predetermined level of standard
chemistry evaluation of chemical constituents that normally occur in the human body, such as glucose, sodium, and potassium levels
confidentiality privacy regarding patient information
ethics standards of behavior, developed as a result of one's concept of right and wrong
hematology study of blood and blood forming tissues
Hepatitis B inflammation of the liver from viral or toxic origins; can be transmitted through blood and body fluid
histology study of human tissues and cells
immunology study of the body's resistance to allergies and other agents that affect the body's immune system; also called serology
informed concent permission granted by the patient to perform any treatment; obtained only when the patient has been told what to expect, the risk, and potential consequences of the procedure
microbiology the study of one-celled organisms that are usually only visible under a microscope
microsurgery surgery involving reconstruction of small tissue structure
microtechniques process of obtaining blood using a dermal (skin) puncture procedure
negligence an intention or unintentional error or wrongdoing
nosocomial infection infection acquired while in a hospital or medical setting
patient's bill of rights document created by the American Hospital Association that identifies privileges patients in health care facilities must have.
personal protective equipment (PPE) protective coverings such as gloves, goggles, gowns, and mask that are worn to minimize exposure to blood and body fluids; required by OSHA to be worn when handling body fluids
phlebotomy an invasive procedure in which a sharp object is introduced into a vein to obtain blood
phlebotomist an individual trained and skilled in obtaining blood samples for clinical sampling
point-of-care testing (POCT) test performed at the patients bedside or work area, using a portable instrument
professionalism a group of characteristics or qualities that display a positive image or code of ethics
reference laboratory a off-site lab to which specimens are referred for testing; usually used for test not routinely performed in physicians' offices
standard precautions infection control guide-lines issued by the CDC to decrease exposure to potentially infectious substances in acute care settings
toxicology detection and study of agents that are harmful to the body
urinalysis examination of urine for physical, chemical, and microscopic characteristics
venipuncture procedure in which a sharp object is introduced into a vein for the purpose of withdrawing blood or instilling medication
antecubital fossa area located in the middle of the arm in front of the elbow, where the most commonly used veins for venipuncture are found
antibody complex protein substance that is produced as a response to foreign substances such as bacteria, viruses, or other protein in order to protect the body
anticogulant any agent that prevents blood from clotting
antigen substance that causes the formation of an antibody when introduced into blood or tissue
aorta largest artery in the body
arteriole smaller branch of an artery, miniature artery
artery blood vessel that carries oxygenated blood from the heart to the tissues
basophil least numerous type of leukocytes
blood type description based on ABO classification system that determines the presence of specific antigens on the surface of red blood cells and antibodies in the plasma
capillary smallest of all the blood vessels; joins arteries and veins; where gas exchange occurs
coagulation cessation of bleeding; clot formation
cytoplasm area of the cell outside the nucleus
deoxygenated containing a higher concentration of carbon dioxide than oxygen
diapedesis process by which certain white blood cells can exit the capillaries and enter the tissues in response to pathogens
eosinophil leukocyte that aids the body in fighting parasites and occurs in increase number in patients with allergies
erythrocyte red blood cells containing hemoglobin, responsible for transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide
fibrin threadlike strains of protein formed by the action of thrombin on fibrinogen
fibrinogen protein found in plasma that is essential for clotting of blood
hematoma collection of blood under the skin due to leakage of blood from a punctured vein of artery
hemoglobin iron-rich protein molecule found in red blood cells that function to transport oxygen and carbon dioxide
hemostasis process of coagulation, or clot formation, that repairs vessel damage and stops blood loss
leukocyte white blood cell whose main function is combating infection and removing disintegrating tissues
lymphocyte leukocytes (WBC) that multiplies in the lymphoid tissue and has a role in the body's immune system
monocyte large leukocytes (WBC) formed in bone marrow that ingests bacteria, old red blood cells, and debris in tissues
neutrophil WBC's that engulfs and digests pathogens found in tissues
oxygenated containing higher concentration of oxygen than carbon dioxide
phagocytosis process by which bacteria and antigens are surrounded and engulfed by WBS
plasma clear, pale yellow fluid component of blood that contains fibrinogens
pus substance containing old WBC's, pathogens, and other debris
serum clear, pale yellow fluid that remains when blood is allowed to clot and does not contain fibrinogens; plasma minus the clotting factor
thrombin enzyme formed in response to an injury that is prerequisite to the fibrin clot formation
thrombocyte also called platelet; the smallest of the formed elements in the bloodstream
tunica intima innermost layer of arteries and veins
tunica media middle layer of arteries and veins
tunica adventitia outermost layer of arteries and veins
vein blood vessel that transports deoxygenated blood from the body tissues back to the heart
vena cava the larges vein in the body
venule a very small vein
Created by: Rlugo1981
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