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Chapter 2 Part A

Levels of Body Organization

Cell basic structural and functional unit of the body: the smallest structure capable of perfoming all the activities vital to life. Examples are adipocytes, chondrocytes and osteocytes. All cells have a nucleus, cytoplasm, and a cell membrane.
Adipocyte fat cell
Chondrocyte cartilage cell
Osteocyte bone cell
tissue similar cells grouped together to perform specific functions. There are only four different classifications of tissue in the human body: connective, epithelial, muscle and nervous tissues.
Connective tissue tissue that functions to support and protect tissue in body structures. Examples are bone cartilage and adipose tissues.
Epithelial tissue (epithelium) tissue that covers the body surface, lines internal cavities (lumen) of hollow organs and forms glands. Examples include the superficial surface of skin (epidermis) and stomach lining (the area of the stomch wall that comes into contact with food)
Muscle tissue tissue that contracts to shorten its length to produce movement. Is composed of individual muscle cells called muscle fibers.
Nervous tissue tissue that conducts electrical impulses (nerve impulses) to function in sensation and control. Examples are cranial and spinal nervouse tissue.
Organ a structure made of different types of tissue that work together to perform specific functions. The heart and most of the larger blood vessels are considered organs because they contain muscle, connective and epithelial tissue.
Organ system a grouping of different organs that work together to perform specific functions. An example is the cardiovascular system, composed of the heart and blood vessels.
Bone Provides structural support for the whole body. Type of connective Tissue.
Cartilage Is the shock absorber in joints. Type of connective Tissue. Note: Cartilage is strong, flexible connective tissue in many places of the body, such as nose, ear and intervertebral discs.
Tendons Tightly connect skeletal muscles to bones. Type of connective Tissue.
Adipose Provides protective padding around body structures. Type of connective Tissue.
Skeletal Muscle Is attached to bone.
Smooth Muscle Is found in internal organs such as the intestine, uterus, and blood vessels.
Cardiac Muscle Is found only in the heart.
Cytology Study of cells and their functions.
Integumentary System Forms protective two-way barrier and aids in temperature regulation. *Skin *Hair *Nails *Sweat glands *Sebaceous Glands
Musculoskeletal System Skeleton supports and protects the body, forms blood cells, and stores minerals. Muscles produce movement. *Bones *Joints *Muscles
Cardiovascular System Pumps blood thoughout the entire body to transport nutrients, oxygen, and wastes. *Heart *Arteries * Veins
Blood (Hematic System) Transports oxygen, protects against pathogens,a dn controls bleeding. *Plasma *Erythrocytes *Leukocytes * Platelets
Lymphatic System Protects the body from disease and invasion from pathogens. *lymph nodes *Lymphatic vessels *Spleen * Thymus gland *Tonsils
Respiratory System Obtains oxygen and removes carbon dioxide from the body. *Nasal cavity *Pharynx *larynx *Trachea *Bronchial tubes *Lungs
Digestive or Gastrointestinal System Ingests, digests, and absorbs nutrients for the body. *Oral cavity *Pharynx *Esophagus *Stomach *Small intestine *Colon *Liver *Gallblader *Pancreas *Salivary Glands
Urinary System Filters waste products out of the blood and removes them from the body. *Kidneys *Ureters *Urinary bladder *Urethra
Female Reproductive System Produces eggs for reproduction and provides place for growing baby. *Ovary *Fallopian Tubes *Uterus *Vagina *Vulva *Breasts
Male Reproductive System Produces sperm for reproduction. *Testes *Epididymis *Vas Defernens *Penis *Seminal Vesicles *Prostate gland *Bulbourethral gland
Endocrine System Regulates metabolic activities of the body. *Pituitary gland *Pineal gland *Thyroid Gland *Parathyroid Glands *Thymus gland *Adrenal glands *Pancreas *Ovaries *Testes
Nervous System Receives sensory information and coordinates the body's response. *Brain *Spinal cord *Nerves
Special Senses Vision *eye Hearing and blance *ear
Created by: Goodaytoyou