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NAU A&P, 7&8

NAU Skeletal System and Joints of the Skeletal System

Bone Functions To serve as framework, to protect delicate structures, to serve as levers to aid muscles in producing movement, to serve as a mineral storehouse for calcium, to produce blood cells.
Dense and looks smooth, looks like a solid structure, gives the body strength to stay upright. Has a diaphysis and an epiphysis. Ex: Femur, humerus Compact Bone
Most of the main bones of the arms and legs. Ex: Radius, Ulna, Femur, Tibia, Fibula, Phalanges Long Bones
Cube shaped, consisting of spongy bone, enclosed in a thin shell of compact bone. Ex: carpals of the wrist and tarsals of the ankles Short Bones
2 layers of compact bone, one enclosing a layer of cancellous bone which provides attachment site for muscles. Ex: sternum Flat Bones
Bones that don't fit into any other category. Ex: Pelvic girdle, vertebrae and ossicles of the ears Irregular Bones
Round bones, embedded within tendons adjacent to joints. Ex: Hyoid bone and patella Sesamoid Bones
Irregular lattice work of thin plates of bone, gives the shape without the weight. The spaces between are filled with red marrow Spongy Bones
Structure of Long Bones Diaphysis, Medullary cavity, Epiphysis, Epiphyseal Line
Long shaft of the bone Diaphysis
Ends that are covered in articular cartilage instead of periosteum Epiphysis
Remnant of the epiphysis plate (growth plate), proximal and distal Epiphyseal line
Two types of Epiphyseal Lines Proximal and distal
Bone Tissue Osseous Tissue
Anchoring point for a muscle, protective covering over the bone. Helps with overall strength, held in place by perforating fibers Periosteum
Is responsible for red blood cell production Red Marrow
Found predominately in the central cavities of the long bones of adults for storage of fats Yellow Marrow
Parts of compact bone tissue Central or Haversian canals, Perforating or Volkmann's canals, Concentric Lamellae, Lacunae, Canaliculi, Osteocytes, Osteoblasts and Osteoclasts
Runs longitudinally through the bone Central or Haversian Canals
Runs perpendicularly from the periosteum through the Medullary cavity, it carries blood vessels and nerves. Perforating or Volkmann's Canals
Rings of hard, calcified intercellular substance which surround the Haversian canals and house the lacunae. Concentric Lamellae
Small spaces between the Lamellae which contain the osteocytes Lacunae
Passageways that connect the bone cells with their nutrient supply from the central canal Canaliculi
Mature bone cells that function to support daily cellular activities Osteocytes
Bone building cells (Ossification) Osteoblasts
Bone destroying cells Osteoclasts
Bone Membranes Periosteum and Endosteum
Covers the marrow lining Endosteum
Bones involved in development and growth Intramembranous and Endochondral bones
Broad, flat bones of the skull, the process of replacing connective tissue to form bone Intramembranous Bones
Bones that develop from masses of hyaline cartilage shaped like future bony structures (Ossification). Endochondral Bones
Anchors periosteum to surface of the bone Sharpe's or Perforiating fibers
Factors of Bone development Nutrition, Exposure to sunlight or dehydrocholesterol, hormonal secretions and physical exercise
Vitamin D is necessary for Calcium absorption from either fortified dairy or from exposure to sunlight, Vitamin A, necessary for Osteoblast and osteoclast functions and Vitamin C for collagen synthesis to promote strength and sturdiness of the bone Nutrition needed for Bones
Produced by cells in the digestive tract, when exposed to sunlight, converts into Vitamin D. Dehydrocholesterol
Growth hormone, from the anterior pituitary, regulates bone cell production that aids in bone elongation, thyroid hormone, thyrosine stimulates, replacment of cartilage at the epiphyseal plate of long bones Hormonal secretions in bones
Physical stress or weight lifting will promote bone tissue to thicken and strengthen Physical exercise needed for bones
Consisting of boney framework Skeleton
Central portion, runs along the longitudinal axis or midline of the body, consists of 80 bones that include the vertebrae, skull, ribs and sternum Axial
126 bones of the appendages including bones of the upper and lower limbs and associated girdles such as hips and shoulders Appendicular
Term for projections or bumps Tuberosity, Tubercles, Trochanter,
Term for rounded, knob-like. Ex: Femur and humerus Head
Term for a large projection Process
Term for smaller rounded projection Condyle
Term for small rounded projection above the condyle Epicondyle
Term for a rough edge or ridge Crest
Term for a sharp projections Spine
Term for Holes Depression
Term for big holes, provides passageways Foramen
Term for air chambers Sinus
Term for depression on the surface of a bone Fossa
Term for short channel or passageway, canal Meatus
Consists of 22 bones Skull
Consists of 8 bones Cranial
Consists of 14 bones, makes up the face Facial
Seam or stitch, immovable fibrous joint found only between the bones of the skull Suture
Name the 8 Cranial Bones 1-Frontal, 2-Parietal, 2-Temporal, 1-Occipital, 1-Ethmoid, 1-Sphenoid
Front bone of the skull Frontal
Bones in the upper, back part of the head Parietal
Bones on the sides of the skull, thin plate of bone Temporal
Bone in the lower back of the skull Occipital
Bone that lays behind the nasal cavity, helps form nasal septum Ethmoid
Bat like bone on the inside of the skull Sphenoid
The ridge near the sphenoid bone Cristi Galli
Resting place of the pituitary gland, secondary protection area Sella Turcica
14 Facial Bones 2-Nasal, 2-Maxillae, 2-Zygomatic, 1- Mandible, 2-Lacrimal, 2-Palatine, 2-Inferior Nasal Conchae, 1-Vomer
Bones that makes up the bridge of the nose Nasal
Bones that form the upper jaw and hard pallet Maxillae
Bones that make up the front of the cheekbones Zygomatic
Movable bone of the face Mandible
Bones that form a structure around the eye sockets and the lacrimal duct Lacrimal
Bones that help form the hard pallet Palatine
Set of bones involved with air turbulence, that help increase surface area of the walls of the nasal cavity Inferior Nasal Conchae
Forms inferior aspect of the nasal septum, plowshare shaped. Divides nasal cavity into left and right halves Vomer
Sutures that overlap straight edges Squamous Suture
Sutures that have jagged, saw-toothed edges Serrate Suture
Suture between the frontal and 2 parietal bones, divide front and back of the skull Coronal
Suture between the 2 parietal bones, runs down the middle of the top of the skull Sagittal
Sutures the runs down the back of the skull, is V-shaped and between the 2 parietal bones and occipital bone Lambdoidal
Suture between the parietal and around temporal bones Squamosal
Vertebral column consists of: Vertebrae, Vertebral Regions and Thoracic Cage
Vertebral Regions consists of: Cervical -7 bones, Thoracic -12 bones, Lumbar -5 bones, Sacral-5 fused bones and Coccygeal- 3-5 fused bones
Vertebrae consists of: Body or centrum, Vertebral foramen, Spinous process, transverse process, superior and inferior articular process, intervertebral foramina
Canal which the spinal cord passes through Vertebral foramen
Single, posterior projection of the vertebrae Spinous process
Paired lateral projection of the vertebrae, that stick out for muscle attachment Transverse process
Paired superior and inferior projections which form a joint with adjacent vertebrae, stackable bones Superior and Inferior Articular Processes
Spaces between joining vertebrae that allow passage of the spinal nerves to the body. Invertebral Foramina
C1 vertebrae, does not have a body, lies on top of the C2-axis Atlas
Has a body, referred to as a dens or a pivot for head rotation Axis
Axis is also referred to as this Dens
Vertebrae that has a spine, the last 5 of 7 vertebrae are for muscular attachment for 6 layers of muscle Cervical
All 12 of these vertebrae attach to ribs except the last 2 Thoracic
Vertebrae that are thicker and the spine is less pronounced. Is weight bearing, consists of 5 vertebrae Lumbar
Consists of 5 fused vertebrae Sacral
Consists of 3-5 fused vertebrae Coccygeal
Sternum consists of: Manubrium, Body and Xiphoid process
Bone part that is palpitated for CPR Manubrium
Middle part of the sternum Body
Lower part of the sternum, that is thinner and can break off during CPR Xiphoid Process
Attach directly to the sternum True Ribs
Attach indirectly to the sternum through articular cartilage False Ribs
No anterior attachment, easily broken Floating Ribs
Appendicular upper extremity bones Pectoral girdle, Humerus, Radius, Ulna, Carpals, Metacarpals and Phalanges/Phalanx
Appendicular lower extremity bones Pelvic girdle, Femur, Patella, Tibia, Fibula, Tarsals, Metatarsals and Phalanges
Bone attaches to the upper extremities to the axial skeleton Pectoral (shoulder) girdle
Pectoral girdle consists of: Clavicle and Scapula
Collarbone Clavicle
Lateral end of the clavicle and articulate with the acromial process Acromial end of the clavicle
Medial end of the clavicle Sternal end of the clavicle
Shoulder blade Scapula
Ridge of the scapula Spine
Depression on the top part of the scapula Supraspinous Fossa
Bone attaches to the upper extremeties to the axial skeleton Pectoral (shoulder) girdle
Pectoral girdle consists of: Clavicle and Scapula
Collarbone Clavicle
lateral end of the clavicle and articulate with the acromial process Acromial end of the clavicle
Medial end of the clavicle Sternal end of the clavicle
Shoulder blade Scapula
Ridge of the scapula Spine
Depression on the top part of the scapula Supraspinous Fossa
Bone attaches to the upper extremeties to the axial skeleton Pectoral (shoulder) girdle
Pectoral girdle consists of: Clavicle and Scapula
Collarbone Clavicle
lateral end of the clavicle and articulate with the acromial process Acromial end of the clavicle
Medial end of the clavicle Sternal end of the clavicle
Shoulder blade Scapula
Ridge of the scapula Spine
Depression on the top part of the scapula Supraspinous Fossa
Depression of the lower part of the scapula Infraspinous Fossa
Lateral end of the spine of the scapula which is flattened and forms a posterior portion of the shoulder socket Acromion
Depression under the acromion that joins the head of the humerus to form the shoulder joint Glenoid cavity
Medial to Glenoid cavity which permits passage of the suprascapular nerve, C-shaped Coracoid process
Makes up the scapula Spine, Supraspinous Fossa, Infraspinous fossa, acromion, glenoid cavity, coracoid process
Bone of the lower arm that is on the thumb side or lateral Radius
Bone that is on the pinky side or medial on the lower arm Ulna
Bones of the wrist Scaphoid, Lunate, Triquetral, Pisiform, Trapezium, Trapezoid, Capitate, Hamate
Bones of the hand Metacarpals
Bones of the fingers Phalanges/Phalanx
Projections at the proximal end of the humerus Greater and lesser tubercles
Projections at the distal, medial end of the humerus Trochlea
At the distal, lateral end of the humerus Capitulum
Joins the radius and ulna in a pulley-shaped surface Capitulum and Trochlea
Ossa Coxae is formed by the fusion of 3 bones Pelvic Girdle
Makes up Pelvic Girdle Ilium, Ischium, Iliac crest
Superior wing portion that forms hips Ilium
Superior border of the Ilium Iliac crest
Lower stronger portion, provides contact when sitting Ischium
Flat edge of the Ischium Ishial Tuberosity
Forms the anterior lower portion of the pelvic girdle Pubis
Joint between the 2 bones that expands during childbirth Pubic Symphasis
Bone of the thigh Femur
Big bump on Femur Greater Trochanter
Little bump on Femur Lesser Trochanter
Ridge on the shaft for muscle attachment of the Femur, runs down the back of the femur Linea Aspera
Makes up the Femur Greater Trochanter, Lesser Trochanter, Linea Aspera
Kneecap Patella
Tougher shin bone, predominantly weight bearing Tibia
Inside of ankle on the Tibia Medial Malleous
Finer, lateral bone does not do much work, but assists Tibia Fibula
Outside of ankle on fibula Lateral Malleous
Bones of the ankle Talus, Calcaneus, Navicular, Cuboid, Cuneiform-3 bones
Bones of the foot Metatarsals
Bones of the toes, numbered 1-10 biggest to littlest Phalanges
Classifications of joints Fibrous, Cartilaginous and Synovial
Makes up Synovial Joints Articular cartilage, joint capsule, ligaments, Synovial membrane, synovial fluid, depending on joint, bursae or menisci
Types of Synovial joints based on shape Plane joint, Hinge joint, Pivot joint, Condyloid joint, Saddle joint, Ball & Socket Joint
Types of joint movement Flexion & Extension, Abduction & Adduction, Pronation & Supination, Inversion & Eversion, Dorsiflexion & Plantar Flexion, Rotation & Circumduction
Immovable joint Syndesmosis
Joint composed of dense connective tissue Fibrous Joint
Immovable suture Synarthosis
Joint around a tooth Gomphosis
Joint connected to hyaline or fibrocartilage Cartilaginous Joint
Cartilage meets the bone Synchondrosis
Complete ossification in adults of the ends of long bones, immovable Synostosis
Freely movable joint, encapsulated joint with the most amount of moving parts Diarthosis
Any type of strong, tough collagenous fibers of attachment that brings bones together Ligaments
Has 2 distinct layers, that holds bones together of a synovial joint Joint capsule
Inner layer of the joint capsule of synovial joints that consists of shiny, vascular, lining of loose connective tissue, to keep friction down Synovial membrane
Synovial membrane which secretes a clear, viscous fluid, functions to keep joints moist & lubricated Synovial fluid
Fibrocartilagenous discs Menisci
Fluid filled sacs or little pillows Bursae
Inflammation of the fluid filled sacs Bursitis
Gliding articular surfaces, are essentially flat joints. Ex: carpals and wrists Plane Joint
Joint with a cyndrical end of one bone that fits into the trough-shaped surface of another bone. Ex: elbow Hinge Joint
Joint with a rounded end of one bone fits into a sleeve or ring of another bone. Ex: First & Second vertebra Pivot Joint
Knuckle like articular surface of one bone fits into an oval concavity of another bone. Ex: Joint between metacarpal and phalanx, knuckles Condyloid Joint
Both articulating bones have concave & convex areas that fit together. Ex: Joints between first metacarpal and trapezium carpal, thumb Saddle Joint
Joint in which the spherical head of one bone fits into the round socket of another bone. Ex: Hip Ball and Socket Joint
Motion towards the body Flexion
Motion extending out Extension
Motion taking away Abduction
Motion toward body Adduction
Motion where hands are downward Pronation
Motion where hands are up Supination
Motion where inside soles of feet are upward and outside soles of feet are downward Inversion
Motion where inside soles of feet are downward and outside soles of feet are upward Eversion
Motion where foot is extended and toes point upward Dorsiflexion
Motion where foot is extended and toes point downward Plantar Flexion
Motion where you are moving around an axis. Ex: moving head around Rotation
Motion where you have circular movement of different degrees with a stationary point. Ex: moving the fingers and not moving the hand Circumduction
Created by: FKrouse



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