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AP Euro His Ch 13

Ch 13 - European State Consolidation in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries

QuestionAnswer
What were the major European state powers in the 17th and 18th centuries? Great Britain, France, Austria, Prussia, Russia
During the 17th -18th centuries, what countries were leading the conquest and early exploitation of the New World? Spain and Portugal
When did the Dutch (United Provinces of Netherland) gain independence from Spain? 1572
Who was the Dutch leader or Stadtholder that led the Dutch to victory against France? Prince William III of Orange
What kind of government did Dutch have? They had sort of a Republican system in which each provinces had a degree of autonomy. The central government (States Generals) ruled on national issues met in the Hague. In general the Dutch distrusted monarchies and gave the provinces wide freedoms.
What was the official religion of the Netherlands? Reformed Calvinist Church but they allow many religions including the Catholics and Jews
The Dutch had a prosperous economy, What kind of industries did they have? Farming, fishing, textiles, oversea trading, and shipbuilding. They also were big in the spice trade
What events caused the Dutch economical decline? Prince William III died in 1702 and the Dutch provinces could not select a new strong leader. The Dutch lost naval supremacy to Great Britain. Other countries started to build their own ships and trade between themselves bypassing the Dutch.
What are the two model European rule in the 17th to 18th century? The Dutch had a republic governed without a monarchy. The European countries were ruled by monarchs with varying degree of power. The French was an autocracy whereas the English is a mix of monarchy and Parliament.
When did James IV of Scotland, son of Mary Queen of Scots become the King of England? 1602
What did King James IV strongly believe was his right? King James IV believed in the Divine Right of the King and be able to rule with very little restrictions from anyone.
Towards the end of King James IV rule, Parliament force a war with this country. In 1624 England went to war with Spain.
King James IV had his son Charles married to whom? Charles was married to Henrietta Maria, the Catholic daughter of Henry IV of France.
King Charles I needed to money for war. How did he get funding? Charles levied taxes on property owners and outrage everyone. Parliament objected, so Charles dissolved Parliament in 1624 .
Why did the Scots rebelled and when? In 1637, Charles imposed the episcopate church system on the Scots to establish religious authority, The Scots rebelled and Charles was forced to recall Parliament in 1640 to ask for money to fight the Scots. Parliament refused, so he dissolved it again.
What was the Long Parliament? The Scots defeated the English at the Battle of Newburn, forcing Charles to recall Parliament, to ask for funds again. He kept Parliament in session for a long period (1640 - 1660), this period was called the "Long Parliament".
Who were the Charles's enemies in Parliament? Landowners and merchants whom did not like taxes. Religious members of Parliament that did not like his religious policies.
What happen during the Long Parliament period? Parliament abolished the Royal Courts used by Charles to levy taxes. In 1642, Charles left London to raise his own army called the Cavaliers, so the Parliament created its own army called the Roundheads. The two armies waged war from 1642-1646
What two factors led to Charles losing the war. Parliament established an alliance with Scotland in 1643. Oliver Cromwell took charge of the Roundhead army and defeated the Cavaliers in 1645.
When was Charles I executed? In 1648, Charles was beheaded. Parliament then abolished the monarchy, the House of Lords and the Anglican Church.
Oliver Cromwell rules England, when and how? From 1649 to 1658, Cromwell named himself Lord Protector of England and rule by military dictatorship.
When did Cromwell died and what happen after his death? Cromwell died in 1658. The English people hated Cromwell's dictatorship and restored the Anglican Church and the monarchy.
Who was Charles II and how did he become King of England after Cromwell's death? Charles II was the son of late Charles I. After the death of Cromwell. the leaders of the army asked Charles II to become King in 1660. Charles II restores the monarchy, Parliament of Lords and Commons and the Anglican Church.
What and when was the Treaty of Dover? In 1670, this was a secret treaty between England and France against the Dutch. Charles II also promise to the King of France to convert England back to Catholicism in exchange for money.
What was the Test Act? Parliament use the Test Act to exclude Roman Catholic from public service, but mainly to prevent the ascension of James, duke of York to the English throne.
Charles II dies when and does what on his deathbed? Charles II dies in 1685 and at his deathbed converts to Catholicism.
What happens when James, duke of York ascends the throne after the death of Charles II? After the death of Charles II in 1685, King James II take the English throne and works to gain rights for Catholics, hoping to convert England back to Catholicism.
Parliament opposes King James II and Catholicism. King James II has a Catholic son which was inline to be heir to the throne. In response Parliament invites the Dutch army led by William of Orange to invade England to prevent the King and heir to convert England to Catholicism.
What was the Glorious Revolution? William of Orange arrived with his army in 1688 and encounter little resistance. King James II was forced to flee to France in 1689 and Parliament named William III and his wife Mary the new monarchs.
During the Glorious Revolution, what did King William III agreed to? The King agreed to be subject to the laws passed by Parliament and rule by consent of Parliament which is to be called to session every three years. Catholics can not ascend to the throne. The new King also agree to the Bill of Rights.
What was the Toleration Act of 1689? This Act permitted worship by all Protestants and outlaw only those Catholics and those deny the Doctrine of the Trinity (The Father, Son and Holy Ghost),
Who was King George I and how he became King in 1714? According to the Act of Settlement, after the death of Anne (daughter of James II) and if she had no heirs, the Elector of the House of Hanover becomes King George I of Great Britain
What was the Age of Walpole? Sir Robert Walpole took the helm of the government for George I and had great success managing the government from 1721 to 1742. Walpole maintained peace abroad and expanded Great Britain's commercial interest and support from English nobles.
When was the reign of King Louis XIV and how did he rule? Louis XIV (son of Louis XIII) ruled France from 1643 to 1715 He ruled through councils that controlled all aspect of government. He also manage the nobility class through regional judicial bodies call parlements.
King Louis XIV declared "I am the state", what did he mean? He believed in the notion of the "Divine Right of Kings" He believed in absolutism, applying it to war and peace, the regulation of religion, economic activity, and everything. He did not allow any intervention of his authority on the national level.
Louis XIV willing to go to war for securing boundaries for France. France wage wars with Netherlands and Spain to gain control of the Spanish Netherlands. He invades the Netherlands in 1672 and ends with the Peace of Nijmwegen but gains more territory.
What were Louis XIV religious policies Louis believed that political unity and stability required religious conformity. In 1685 Louis revoked the Edict of Nantes which limited the rights to Protestants. Louis used religious ideology as a mean of political and social control or repression.
Louis attempted to expand the border of France in the Nine Years War from 1689 to 1697. In 1681, Louis sent forces to occupy the free city of Strabourg on the Rhine River. A coalition of the English, Spanish, Swedish, German, and Dutch formed an army called the League of Angsburg to fight the French in battles called the "Nine year's War"
The end of the " Nine Years War" The Peace of Ryswick (1697) ends the Nine Years War, It prevents Louis's expansion into Germany and secures Holland's borders.
When did Phillip V of Spain take the Spanish throne? In 1700, King Charles II of Spain dies without an heir. Charles leaves the throne to Louis's grandson Philip of Anjou, who became the King Philip V of Spain.
Why did the other European powers feel threaten by Spain with King Philip on the throne? Philip is the grandson of French King Louis XIV. The European powers England, Holland and the Holy Roman Empire felt that Spain would side with France. In response they assembled the Grand Alliance to preserve the balance of power.
What led to the War of Spanish Succession? In an attempt to counter Spain and France growing dominance on trade, the opposition form the Grand Alliance to support the Holy Roman Empire's Emperor Leopold's claim of Spanish inheritance for his second son, Archduke Charles.
Why did France do so poorly in the War of Spanish Succession? France of poorly equipped to fight the war, it lacked finances and skilled generals and advanced weapons. The English led by John Churchill defeated the French at every major battle.
The French was losing the war and made peace with England. France enter a peace treaty with England in 1713 at Utrecht. Philip V of Spain remain King of Spain but renounced his place to the throne of France reducing the chance that Spain and France would join.
What did England get out of the peace treaty at Utrecht? England was given control of Gibraltar and the island of Minorca. King Louis XIV of France had to recognize the right of the House of Hanover to the English throne.
After King Louis XIV death, who succeeded the French throne? King Louis XIV was succeeded by his five year old great grandson Louis V. Since Louis V was not of age, his uncle (Duke of Orleans) was made regent to rule until Louis V became of age.
What was the Mississippi Bubble? The Duke of Orleans like to gamble and got financial management help from a fellow gambler John Law. Law setup sham companies with inflated values to cheat French Banks but investor caught on and John Law was forced to flee. This affair was the Mississipp
The Duke of Orleans weakened the monarchy by increasing the powers of Parlements. The Parlements were served by nobles, but they lack the expertise or the desire to govern. Orleans reversed many of the policies of Louis XIV and Parlement became a vehicle of resistance to the powers of the monarchy.
What were the major dynasties in central and eastern Europe? The Hohenzollerns in Prussia The Romanov in Russia The Habsburgs in Austria
What was the Habsburg Empire? The Habsburg Empire was controlled by the Austrian Habsburgs, whose goal was to control all the German states and convert to Catholicism. The Habsburg empire had vast lands and a large diverse groups of people of many cultures and languages but had little
How is the Habsburg Dynasty and the Holy Roman Empire related? Emperor Leopold I is the Habsburg Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire. The Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire is crowned by the Pope of Catholic Rome.The Habsburg Dynasty controlled the largest block of territory in the Holy Roman Empire, so it gets elected Em
Downfall of the Habsburg Dynasty and how was it link to the "Practical Solution"? Emperor Charles VI was the grandson of Emperor Leopold I. He did not have a male heir, so he tried to have his daughter Maria Theresa recognized as his rightful heir (Pragmatic Solution). It did not work out well, Prussia (Present Germany) invaded anyway.
Prussia (present day Germans) was run by the Hohenzollern Dynasty. Who were they in competition with? The Hohenzollern Dynasty ruled since the 14th century. By the 17th century, only the Habsbrugs possessed more territory than the Hohenzollerns within the Holy Roman Empire.
Who was the leader of Prussia? Frederick William was the central leader. He was able to control the German landlords called Junkers. He was also able to collect taxes. He also appointed nobles to leadership roles in the military and required the noble to pledge him loyalty.
Prussia challenges the Austrian Habsburgs for power. When Fredrick II (grandson of Fredrick William and son of Fredrick I) came to power, he immediately decided to challenge the Habsburg's Practical Solution by invading Habsburg control territory of Silesia which started a big rivalry between the two.
What Russian Dynasty controlled Russia? The Romanov Dynasty.
Who was Ivan the terrible? Ivan IV (1533 - 1584 was the tyrant that ruled through violence and oppression. This period was called the Time of Troubles.
Who was the first leader of the Romanov Dynasty? Micheal Romanov was elected Tsar in 1613 at the age of 17.
Who was Peter the Great? Peter and his half brother (Ivan V) was appointed co-rulers of Russia, but violence and bloodshed surrounded their succession. Peter took control in 1689. His goal was to end the in-fighting within the Russian leadership and expand the military.
Peter had a rebellion on his hands, what did he do? Peter traveled to Europe in 1697 but on his return, he found that the Streltsy had rebelled. Peter suppressed the rebellion by killing and torturing over one thousand persons.
Peter expands the military. He increase the army to about three hundred thousand men and expand the navy greatly. He had many naval battles with the Ottoman Empire and Sweden.
What was the Great Northern War? Russia's Navy expanded into the Baltic Sea to challenge Sweden. The Great Northern War was war between Russia and Sweden from 1700 to 1721. Sweden won most of the early battles but by 1709, Peter's military defeated Sweden at the Battle of Poltava Ukraine
Peter construct a new capital . Peter constructs a new capital called St. Petersburgs on the Gulf of Finland as a symbol to his holding of the Baltic coast.
Peter's reforms in his final years. He work to bring the nobles and the Russian Orthodox Church under the control of the Tsar. He creates a system of colleges. He also gets state control over the Church by setting up a government department to control the Church. Peter dies without a heir.
The Ottoman Empire controlled which lands? The Ottoman Empire controlled most of the Middle East including important cities of Mecca and Medina. They dominated the politics in the Muslim world but also tolerated people of other religions such as Catholics, Jews, and Orthodox Christians.
What was the religion of the Ottoman Empire? Islam was the main religion but tolerated other religions. Non-Islamic people were called Dhimmis and had to paid a special poll tax, could not join the military and could not wear certain type of clothes.
What stop the Ottoman Expansion into Europe? The Ottoman tried to push into Europe and in 1683, laid siege to Vienna but they were unsuccessful in the attempt. The Ottoman had many battles with coalitions of Europe and Russia and loss a series of these battles. Over time, their power declined.
Created by: Dquong101