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Anatomy: Cells

Human Anatomy (Marieb)

46 number of chromosomes in a somatic cell
23 number of chromosomes in a sex cell
Flagellum moves the cell only the sperm cells have these in humans
Cillia Microtubules - moves things past the cell often by mucus cells
microvilli extensions of the cell membrane help increase surface area of the cell
three main parts of a human cell Plasma membrane cytoplasm nucleus
Plasma membrane the outer boundary of the cell that acts as a selectively permeable membrane
Cytoplasm fluid in the cell packed with organelles
organelles small structures that perform specific cell functions found in the cytoplasm
nucleus an organelle that controls cellular activities usually lies near the center of the cell
extracellular materials substances contributing to body mass that are found outside the cells
interstitial fluid blood plasma and cerebrospinal fluid
5 functions of the plasma membrane mechanical barrier selective permeability electrochemical gradient communication cell signaling
Glycolipids lipids with attached sugar groups
Name 3 membrane lipids phospholipids glycolipids cholesterol
Integral proteins proteins firmly inserted into the lipid bilayer
peripheral proteins proteins loosely attached to integral proteins
tight junctions a series of integral protein molecules in the plasma membranes of adjacent cells fuse together, forming an impermeable junction that encircles the cell
desmosomes anchoring junctions that bind adjacent cells together act like molecular velcro and also help form an internal tension-reducing network
gap junctions communicating junctions that alow ions and small molecules to pass ae particularly important for communication in heart cells and embryonic cells
diffusion the tendency of molecules or ions to move from an area where they are in higher concentration to an area where they are in lower concentration
selective permeability allowing some substances to pass while excluding others
simple diffusion nonpolar and lipid-soluble substances diffuse directly through the lipid bilayer
What three characteristics will allow things to pass through the selective permeable barrier lipid soluable small enough to pass through the channels those assisted by a carrier molecule
Osmosis the diffusion of a solvent (like water) through a selectively permeable membrane
carriers transmembrane integral proteins that are specific for transporting certain polar molecules or classes of molecule, such as sugars or amino acids, that are too large to pass through membrane channels
channels transmembrane proteins that transport substances, usually ions or water, through aqueous channels from one side of the membrane to the other
tonicity the ability of a solution to change the shape or tone of cells by altering the cells' internal water volume
isotonic solutions have the same concentrations of nonpenetrating solutes as those found in the cells
hypertonic solutions have a higher concentration of nonpenetrating solutes as those in the cells
hypotonic solutions have a lower concentration of nonpenetrating solutes as those in the cells
Active membrane transport transport that requires carrier proteins that combine specifically and reversibly with the transported substances
What are solute pumps? active transporters that move substances "uphill" or against the concentration gradient
A cell with many mitochondria would most likely be involved in... ATP manufacture
What would you expect to happen when a cell is placed into a hypertonic solution? Water flows out of the cell and the cell shrinks
True or False. Active transport only occurs in a living cell. True (Active process involves energy. There is no energy in dead cells)
Which cellular organelle is responsible for lipid manufacture and detoxification? Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
True or False. Blood plasma represents one type of intracellular fluid. False (it is extracellular)
Which type of junction acts like a zipper to prevent the passage of materials between cells? Tight junctions
A chemo drug works by attaching to and damaging the mitotic spindle. Why would this drug be fatal to the cell and thus beneficial for chemotherapy? It destroys the spindle making it impossible for the cell to complete mitosis and reproduce.
Created by: twolden1