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Chapter 19

Blood Vessels

QuestionAnswer
cardio meas __ while vascular means __ heart - vessels
blood goes from the aorta to the ___ to the __ to the __to the venules then the __ and __ to the right atrium arteries -> arterioles ->capillary --> veins -> vena cava
why is pressure so high in arteries? b/c it just came from pumping heart
what are the 3 type of vessels? arteries, veins & capillaries
arteries carries blood __ and regulates __ away from heart - blood pressure
there are lots of smooth muscles and fibrous tissue in this vessel so it doesn't rupture. arteries
arterioles function: promote or shut off flow in capillary beds
what are arterioles? small arteries close to capillary beds
arteries don't have __ only veins do. valves
lumen opening blood is passing through
valves prevents __ backflow
sit of gas exchange, one line of epithelial tissue. capillaries
veins carries blood __ to the heart
capillaries has ___ and a ___ endothelial cells & basement membrane
3 tissues that make up vessel wall: tunica intima, media & externa
the tunica intima is made up of: endothelium
the tunica media is composed of __ smooth muscle & elastic fibers
arteries are thicker in the tunica media because... they can control diameter
this vessel wall is made of collagen fiber. which vessel is it? tunica externa
which vessel wall gives tissue blood supply? tunica externa
the ___ wraps around vessels holding it together tunica externa
blood flow volume of blood getting through body in certain time frame
pressure of blood against wall of large arteries measured in mmHg blood pressure
systolic pressure peak pressure during systole
diastolic pressure lowest level pressure during diastole
normal blood pressure is__ 120/80 mmHg
systolic pressure is generated by ___ ventricular contraction
in diastolic pressure, the walls of the arteries... recoil to maintain pressure
what is pulse pressure? difference between systolic & diastolic pressures
amount of blood that's returning to the heart is known as... venous return
mean arterial pressure (MAP) : average pressure experienced by vessels through cardiac cycle
MAP formula: diastolic pressure + pulse pressure / 3
the bigger the pressure gradient... the faster blood travels
if cardiac output & resistance increases, so does.. pressure
mean arterial pressure is responsible for... propelling blood
what are the 3 sources of resistance? viscosity, vessel length, vessel diamater
vasoconstriction contracts vessels to make narrow - increase in resistance
vasodilation relax vessels to make wide - decrease in resistance
the higher the RBC count... the thicker the blood
the higher the viscosity, the... thicker the resistance
out of the 3 sources of resistance...which one changes? vessel diameter
what is the difference between turbulent flow and laminar flow? turbulent flow is rough, slows blood down - laminar: smooth flow
turbulent flow affects the ___ vessel wall
endothelial injury is known as atherosclerosis
vessels are not elastic, they all respond... differently
atherosclerosis can cause__ instability rupture
CO depends on___ blood flow
we can effect resistance by: changing diameter of vessel
change in pressure = cariac output x resistance
veins have a larger ___ than arteries diamater
blood pressure changes anytime we change ___ or ___ cardiac output or resistance
neural control alters ___ and ___ cardiac output - resistance
2 goals of neural control? 1. maintain adequate by altering vessel diameter 2. alter blood distribution to respond to demands
which ANS innervates vessel diameter? sympathetic system
what is vasomotor tone? normal resting rate
sympathetic efferents are ___ that ___ vasomotor fibers - innervate smooth muscle of vesels mostly arterioles
what are baroreceptors? stretch detectors - detect pressure changes
where are baroreceptors found? carotid sinuses, aortic arch, large arteries of neck &thorax
chemoreceptors detect ___ changes such as __ chemical - oxygen, CO2
when pH levels falls, ___ levels rise, which ____ O2 - activates cardioaccelatory center
chemoreceptors has a big influence on ___ ___ respiratory rate
chemoreceptors activates vasomotor center which causes reflexive ___ vasoconstriction
the cerebral cortex & hypothalamus relay messages to the ___ medullary centers
in the brain, the fight or flight system is mediated by.... the hypothalamus
Created by: Mariahj25