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Endocrine & Blood

Human Anatomy & Physiology 2 Ch. 18 & 19, Endocrine System & Blood

Name the endocrine glands and organs that produce hormones. Thyroid, parathyroid, pineal, pituitary, and adrenal glands; hypothalamus, thymus, pancreas, ovaries, testes, placenta, liver, kidneys, stomach, small intestine, skin, heart, and adipose tissue.
Name the two body systems that regulate the homeostasis of the body. Nervous and Endocrine Systems
Compare the responses of the nervous and endocrine systems. The nervous system releases neurotransmitters, which act locally and quickly on neurons, muscle cells, and glandular cells; the endocrine system releases hormones, which act more slowly on virtually all body parts, distant or not.
What is a target cell? A cell that bears receptors for a hormone
Name the lipid-soluble hormones. Steroids, thyroid hormones, and nitric oxide
Name the water-soluble hormones. Amines; peptides, proteins, and glycoproteins; and eicosanoids
How do lipid-soluble hormones alter the activity of the target cells? They alter gene expression
How do water-soluble hormones alter the activity of the target cells? They activate plasma membrane receptors, which elicit production of a second messenger that activates various enzymes inside the cell
Name the three sources that regulate hormone secretion. Signals from the nervous system, chemical changes in blood, and other hormones
Name the hormones produced by the anterior pituitary. hGh (human growth hormone/somatotropin), TSH (Thyroid-stimulating hormone/thyrotropin), FSH (Follicle-stimulating hormone), LH (Luteinizing hormone), PRL (Prolactin), ACTH (Adrenocorticotropic hormone/corticotropic), MSH (Melanocyte stimulating hormone)
What do tropic hormones do? Tropic hormones stimulate secretion of a hormone in a gland.
What are some examples of tropic hormones? Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH), growth hormone-inhibiting hormone (GHIH)
What is the function of hGH? Stimulates body growth through insulin-like growth factors (IGFs).
What is the function of TSH? Regulates thyroid gland activities.
What is hypoglycemia? Low blood glucose level
What is hyperglycemia? High blood glucose level
What regulates TSH (thyroid-stimulating hormone)? Stimulated by TRH (thyrotropin-releasing hormone) and suppressed by GHIH (growth hormone-inhibiting hormone).
What are the target organs of TSH? Thyroid gland
What is the function of FSH? Regulate activities of the gonads - ovaries and testes
What regulates FSH? GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone)
What are the target organs of FSH? Gonads - ovaries and testes
What are the targets of ADH (antidiuretic hormone)? Kidneys and blood
Insulin-like growth factors are necessary for the full effect of ___. hGH
What regulates hGH? Promoted by GHRH (growth hormone-releasing hormone). Inhibited by GHIH (growth hormone-inhibiting hormone).
What are the targets of hGH? Liver, skeletal muscles, cartilage, bones, and other tissues
What gland can be classified as an endocrine and exocrine gland? Pancreas
What produces antidiuretic hormone and oxytocin? Hypothalamus
What synthesizes the hormones secreted from the posterior pituitary gland? Hypothalamus
What stimulates the release of parathyroid hormone? Low calcium in blood
What produces epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline)? Adrenal medulla
What is the effect of calcitonin on blood calcium levels? Decreases blood calcium levels.
What secretes melatonin? Pineal gland
What are the three granular white blood cells? Neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils
What are the two agranular white blood cells? Lymphocytes and monocytes
What are erythrocytes? Red Blood Cells
What are leukocytes? White Blood Cells
What vitamin is needed for blood to clot? Vitamin K
What is the lifespan of red blood cells? 120 days
What is erythropoiesis? Formation of red blood cells in red bone marrow
What is fibrinolysis? The process by which plasminogen dissolves fibrin in blood clots
What is thrombosis? Blood clot in an unbroken vessel
What are emboli? Clots that travels in blood vessels
Why is Type O considered the theoretical universal donor? There are no A or B antigens on RBCs.
A parasite infection is often manifested by a high count of ___. eosinophils
What are the plasma proteins in order from most abundant to least? Albumins, globulins, fibrinogen
What are the phases of hemostasis? Vascular spasms, platelet plug formation, blood clotting by fibrin threads
Of what does the buffy coat of centrifuged blood consist? White blood cells and platelets
What is the function of LH (luteinizing hormone)? Stimulates ovation, stimulates progesterone secretion by the corpus luteum, and readies the mammary glands for milk secretion in females; stimulates testosterone secretion by the testes in males
What regulates LH (luteinizing hormone)? Stimulates gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)
What are the target organs of LH? corpus luteum, mammary glands, testes, ovaries
What is the function of ACTH (Adrenocorticotropic hormone)? Regulates activities of the adrenal cortex
What regulates ACTH? CRH (corticotropin-releasing hormone)
What is the target of ACTH? Adrenal cortex
What is the function of PRL (prolactin)? Initiates milk secretion.
What regulates PRL? Prolactin-inhibiting hormone (PIH) and Prolactin-releasing hormone (PRH)
What are the target organs of PRL? Mammary glands
What is the function of MSH (melanocyte-stimulating hormone)? Darkens skin
What regulates MSH? Inhibited by dopamine, stimulated by corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)
What is the target organ of MSH? Brain, Melanin-producing cells
What is the function of oxytocin? Enhances contraction of smooth muscle of uterus wall during delivery. After delivery, stimulates milk ejection from mammary glands
What regulates oxytocin? Secreted by neurosecretory cells of hypothalamus in response to uterine distension and stimulation of nipples
What are the target organs of oxytocin? Uterus and breasts
What is the function of the ADH? Conserves body water by decreasing urine volume, decreasing water loss through perspiration; raises blood pressure by constricting arterioles
What regulates ADH? Secreted in response to elevated blood osmotic pressure, dehydration, blood loss, pain, or stress. Inhibited by low blood osmotic pressure, high blood volume, and alcohol
What produces and stores ADH? Produced by hypothalamus. Stored in posterior pituitary gland.
What produces and stores oxytocin? Produced by hypothalamus. Stored in posterior pituitary gland.
What produces and stores MSH? anterior pituitary gland.
What produces and stores PRL? anterior pituitary gland.
What produces and stores ACTH? anterior pituitary gland.
What produces and stores LH? anterior pituitary gland.
What produces and stores FSH? anterior pituitary gland.
What produces and stores TSH? anterior pituitary gland.
What produces and stores hGH? anterior pituitary gland.
What are two hormones released from the thyroid gland? T3 and T4
What is the function of T3 and T4? Increase basal metabolic rate; stimulate synthesis of proteins; increase use of glucose and fatty acids for ATP production; increase lipolysis; enhance cholesterol excretion; accelerate body growth; contribute to development of nervous system
What organ produces parathyroid hormone? Parathyroid gland
What is the effect of calcitriol? Lowers blood levels of Ca^2+ and HPO4^2- by inhibiting bone resorption by osteoclasts and by accelerating uptake of calcium and phosphates into bone extracellular matrix
What produces calcitriol? Thyroid gland
How is parathyroid hormone secretion controlled? Low blood calcium stimulate secretion; high blood calcium inhibit secretion
What type of pancreatic cells release insulin? Beta cells of pancreatic islets
Which pancreatic cells release glucagon? Alpha cells of pancreatic islets
What are the three signs of diabetes? Polyuria, polyphagia, and polydipsia.
What is polyuria? Abnormally large production of urine
What is polyphagia? Insatiable appetite for food
What is polydipsia? Abnormally great thirst
What is the role of glucocorticoids? Influence glucose metabolism & stress resistance, protein breakdown, anti-inflammatory effects
What is the role of mineralocorticoids? Affect mineral homeostasis
What is the role of androgens in general? Masculinizing, stimulate growth of axillary and pubic hair and aid prepubertal growth spurt in both sexes. In females, contributes to libido and is converted to estrogen.
What's the primary glucocorticoid hormone? Cortisol
Name a mineralocorticoid hormone. Aldosterone
Which of the steroid hormones produced in the adrenal gland regulate the Na+ and K+ levels in blood? Aldosterone
Which part of the adrenal gland produces glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, and androgens? Adrenal cortex
What is the source of estrogen after menopause? Androgens
What is the role of melatonin? Helps set the biological clock by setting the sleep cycle
What hormones are produced by testes and ovaries? Testosterone, estrogen, and progesterone
What are the three stages of the stress response? Flight-or-fight response, resistance, exhaustion
Which hormone is involved in the conversion of glycogen into glucose? Glucagon
What hormones become deficient at old age? hGH, thyroid hormones, cortisol, aldosterone, estrogens
What hormone rises in blood at old age and leads to osteoporosis? Parathyroid hormone
What hormone is responsible for Addison's disease? Deficient adrenal hormones, like aldosterone
What hormone is responsible for Graves disease? Excess thyroid hormones
What hormone is responsible for Cushing's disease? Excess glucorticoids
What hormone is responsible for myxedema? Deficient thyroid hormone
What hormone is responsible for pheochromocytoma? Excess of epinephrine and norepinephrine
What are the functions of blood? Blood transports oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, wastes, and hormones ; helps regulate temperature, ph, and water content in cells; provides protection by clotting and by combating toxins and microbes through certain phagocytic wbc's or plasma proteins
What is the total volume of the blood in the body? 4-6 liters
What is the role of a receptor? They recognize and bind to specific hormones
What is blood's ph? 7.35-7.45
What's blood's temperature? 100.4 F
What's blood's color? Red
What are the 2 components of blood? 55% blood plasma, 45% formed elements.
What is hemopoiesis? Formation of blood cells from hemopoietic stem cells in red bone marrow
Where in the body do blood cells form? Bone marrow
What is the stem cell that gives rise to all different kinds of blood cells? Pluripotent
What are erythrocytes? Red blood cells
What are leukocytes? WBC's
What are thrombocytes? Platelets
What are reticulocytes? Immature red blood cells
What is the protein found in red blood cells? Hemoglobin
What are the components of hemoglobin? Globin, and four heme groups, each associated with an iron
Briefly describe the life cycle of red blood cells. Erythropoiesis in red bone marrow. Proerythroblast -> ejects its nucleus, becomes a reticulocyte -> develop into mature RBCs -> enter circulation ->recycled
What is erythropoiesis? Production of red blood cells
What is erythropoietin (EPO)? Hormone released by kidneys that stimulates red blood cell production
Where is EPO produced? Juxtaglomerular cells of the kidney
What factors triggers release of EPO? low oxygen levels; blood loss; high altitude
What substances are needed for the formation of healthy red blood cells? Iron, copper, Vitamin A and B
What is hematocrit? Percentage of blood made up of red blood cells
What are the different leukocytes? Neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, lymphocytes, monocytes,
What is the function of basophils? Liberate heparin, histamine, and serotonin in allergic reactions that intensify the inflammatory response
What is the function of lymphocytes? W/ foreign antigens, B _ differentiate into plasma cells that produce antibodies, which attach to the antigens and render them harmless; thus combat infection and provides immunity. T _ destroy foreign invaders directly.
What is the function of monocytes? Migrate from blood into the tissues, where they differentiate into macrophages, which can gather at sites of infection or inflammation. Via phagocytosis combat inflammation and infection.
What is the function of eosinophils? Combat the effects of histamine in allergic reactions, phagocytize (envelop and destroy) antigen-antibody complexes, and combat parasitic worms
What is the function of neutrophils? Via phagocytosis combat inflammation and infection
What is the function of platelets? Stop blood loss by forming a platelet plug
What is hemostasis? Stoppage of bleeding
What is coagulation? Clotting
What is the difference between serum and plasma? Serum is blood plasma minus clotting proteins
What is the difference between plasminogen and plasmin? Plasminogen is an inactive enzyme that is incorporated into a clot. Then it is activated to plasmin to dissolve the clot.
What is the role of plasmin in blood? Dissolve blood clot by digesting fibrin threads
What are the differences between thrombosis, thrombus, and embolus? Thrombosis is clotting in an unbroken blood vessel. The clot itself is a thrombus. If it moves from its site of origin it is an embolus.
What are the four different blood types? A, B, AB, O
What blood type is the universal donor? O
What blood type is the universal recipient? AB
What is the difference between Rh+ and RH-? Rh+ has Rh antigens; Rh- has none.
What are the components of blood plasma? 91.5% water, 8.5% solutes: proteins, nutrients, vitamins, hormones, respiratory gases, electrolytes, and waste products.
What are the components of formed elements in blood? red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets
Created by: leprajacqu



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