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Anatomy: Chemistry

Human Anatomy (Marieb)

TermDefinition
Energy The capacity to do work (massless)
Kinetic energy Energy in action
Potential energy stored energy
Matter Solid, liquid, gas Has mass
Chemical energy In chemical bonds (potential into kinetic) Digestion
Electrical energy Results from the movement of charged particles Ions across cell membranes (nervous system)
Mechanical energy directly involved in moving matter (muscle and skeletal movement)
Radiant energy energy that travels in waves (X-rays, visible light, UV, vitamin D production)
Elements Cannot be broken down into smaller substances
elements that make up 96% of body Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen
3 subatomic particles Protons, neutrons, electrons
Proton positive charged particle in nucleus
Neutron neutral charged particle in nucleus
Electron negative charged particle outside of nucleus
Atomic number number of protons (also electrons since they equal)
Atomic mass number of protons + number of neutrons
Atomic weight takes into consideration the various isotopes. average of all relative weights of the isotopes
Isotopes elements that have the same number of protons, but different number of neutrons
Orbitals regions around the nucleus that contain electrons
Radioisotopes unstable isotopes that decompose spontaneously (radioactivity)
Molecule Two or more atoms bonded together with chemical bond. smallest particle of a compound with those specific characteristics. can be the same kind of atom.
Compound Two or more DIFFERNT kinds of atoms bonded together
Chemical bond Atoms combined with other atoms
Electron shell orbitals around the nucleus
Valence shell outermost orbital
Octet rule atoms tend to interact in order to have 8 electrons in the valence shell (except shell 1)
Ion charged atom as it gained or lost electrons formed by the transfer of valence shell electrons
Anion Negative charged ion (gained electron)
Cation Positive charged ion (lost electron)
Ionic bond attraction of opposite charged ions most are salts
Covalent bond formed when atoms share electrons
Nonpolar covalent bond electrons shared equally. (Like CO2) Electrically balanced
Polar covalent bond unequally shared electrons. Part of the molecule will be slightly positive and another part will be slightly negative
Hydrogen bond Not a true bond - more like an attraction. Hydrogen is attracted to a negative atom in another molecule
Synthesis chemical reaction smaller particles are bonded together to form larger, more complex molecules. (Amino acids)
Decomposition chemical reaction Bonds are broken in larger molecules resulting in smaller, less complex molecules (Glycogen broken down into glucose)
Exchange chemical reactions Bonds are both made and broken (also called displacement reactions)
Factors that affect reaction rates Temperature, concentration, particle size, catalysts
Trace Element An element that makes up 0.01% of body weight or less
Created by: twolden1