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Anatomy: Overview

Human Anatomy (Marieb)

TermDefinition
Sagittal Left to Right from center of specimen
Midsagittal or median Equal sides after division
Parasagittal Unequal halves after division
Coronal or Frontal Front to back division
Transverse Top to bottom division
Transverse section Straight across the organ (perpendicular)
Longitudinal section lengthwise line along the organ (like center line on road)
Oblique section diagonal cut through the organ
Superior Top of body
Anterior Back of body
Medial Closest to center of the body
Proximal limbs - closest to point of attachment
Superficial Close to the surface
Inferior Bottom of the body
Posterior (Dorsal) Back of body (think dorsal fin on fish)
Lateral Farthest away from center line of body
Distal Limbs - further from point of attachment
Deep Closer to center of body
Dorsal Body Cavity contains vertebral cavity and Cranial cavity
Vertebral cavity Contains spinal cord
Cranial Cavity Contains brain
Ventral Body Cavity Contains Thoracic Cavity and Abdominopelvic cavity
Thoracic Cavity Contains heart and lungs - above diaphram
Mediastinum Space between the lungs - where the heart is
Pericardial cavity Contains the heart
Pleural cavities contains the lungs
Abdominopelvic cavity (peritoneal cavity) below the diaphram
Abdominal cavity contains the digestive organs - everything from navel to diaphram
pelvic cavity everything below the navel - urinary, reproductive, rectum
Visceral (layer) membranes that line organs
Parietal (layer) membranes that line cavities
visceral pleura lines outside of the lung
parietal pleura lines the pleural cavity wall
visceral pericardium lines the outside of the heart (the outside membrane)
parietal pericardium lines the pericardium cavity wall
viscera peritoneum lines the organs (the inside membrane)
perietal peritoneum lines the peritonium cavity wall
RUQ Right Upper Quadrant
RLQ Right Lower Quadrant
LUQ Left Upper Quadrant
LLQ Left Lower Quadrant
RH region Right Hypochondriac Region
RL region Right Lumbar Region
RI region Right Iliac Region
ER Region Epigastric Region
UR Region Umbilical Region
HR Region Hypogastric Region
LH Region Left Hypochondriac Region
LL Region Left Lumbar Region
LI Region Left Iliac Region
Integumentary System Protection - hair, skin, nails, sweat and oi glands
Skeletal System Movement - bones and joints
Muscular System Movement - muscles
Nervous System Brain, spinal cord, nerves
Endocrine System Glands and Thymus
Cardiovascular (Circulatory) System Heart and blood vessels
Lymphatic & Immune System Bone marrow, Thymus, Spleen, Lymph nodes, vessels, ducts
Respiratory System Nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchus, lungs
Digestive System Oral cavity, Esophagus, liver, stomach, intestines, rectum,
Urinary System Kidney, Ureter, bladder, urethra
Reproductive system Male: prostate, penis, testis, scrotum, ductus deferens Female: mammary glands, ovary, uterus, uterine tube, vagina
Oral Mouth
Orbital Eyes
Mental Chin
Thoracic Chest
Cubital Inside Elbow
Inguinal Inner Thigh and groin
Patellar kneecap - patella
Occipital Back of head
Scapular Shoulder blade
Vertebral Spine
Lumbar Lower back
Cervical Neck - vertebra
Axillary Armpit
Acromial (Deltoid) Shoulder
Brachial Upper Arm
Femroal Upper Leg or Thigh
Plantar Bottom of feet
Pubic Genitals
Popliteal Back of knee
Sacral Base of spine
Gluteal Buttocks
Anatomy structure of boy parts and their relationship
Physiology Functions of the body - How it works
Gross Anatomy study of large body systems (regional, systemic, surface anatomy)
Microscopic Anatomy structures too small to see with naked eye (cytology, histology)
Developmental Anatomy structural changes that occur throughout lifespan (embryology)
Chemical level of structure atoms combine to form molecules
Cellular level of structure cells are made up of molecules
Tissue level of structure Tissues consist of similar types of cells
Organ level of structure Organs are made up of different types of tissues
Organ system level of structure Organ systems consist of different organs that work together closely
Organismal level of structure the human organism is made up of many organ systems
Homeostasis ability to maintain relatively stable internal conditions even though the outside world changes constantly
Negative feedback Goal: reduce or shut off original stimulus (regulation of body temp - like a thermostat) Most feedback mechanisms are Negative
Positive Feedback Goal: enhance or exaggerate original stimulus (blood clotting) usually for events that happen infrequently
Survival Needs Nutrients, Oxygen, Water, Normal Body Temp, Atomspheric Pressure
Created by: twolden1