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Human A&P 15-21

Human A&P lectures covering some circulation, lungs, & kidneys

Upper Resperatory Tract Nose and Throat (Pharynx)
Lower Resperatory Tract Larynx, Trachea, Bronchi, and Lungs
Goblet Cells Cells interspersed among ciliated epithelial cells; secrete mucus
Air entering the nose is... warmed by extensive capillary networks underlying the nalas epithelium and humidified by mucus
Sinusitis Mucous epithelium lining the paranasal sinuses cavities become inflamed. Excess mucus is produced by paranasal sinuses.
Sinusitis Treatment Less mucus: Decongestants cause vasoconstriction of arterioles supplyng blood to capillary networks >> less edema >> less mucus
Trachea Membranous tube consisting of connective tissue and smooth muscle reinforced with C-shaped cartilage.
Cilia w. relation to Trachea Cilia push foreign particles UP through larynx to pharynx so they can be swallowed
Lungs: Description Devided into lobes separated by deep prominent fissures. Right long has 3 lobes while the left has 2.
Long term smoking: effect on tracheal epithelium. Cilia lost >> greatly impairs ability to move mucus and trapped substances >> constant irritation = smoker's cough.
Pulmonary Lobes are further subdivided into... Bronchopulmonary segments
Hierarchy of Airways Trachea, Bronchus, Lobar Bronchus, Segmental Bronchus, Bronchioles, Terminal Bronchioles, Respiratory Bronchioles
Contraction and Dilation of circular smooth muscle around the bronchi and broncioles that changes their diameter Bronchoconstrictino and Bronchodilation, respectively.
Asthma: chain of events Hyperactive immune response >> Chronic inflamation >> edema and increased mucus production >> greatly decreased effective diameter
Gases pass through: Alveolar fluid >> alveolar epithelium>> epithelial basement membrane >> intersitital floid >> endothelial basement membrane >> capillary endothelium
Pluerae Surround each lung and include 2 layers of serous membranes with pleural fluid in between. (inner: visceral, outer: parietal)
Pleural Fluid allows the membranes to slide over each other as the lung expands and relaxes. Also holds them together
Diaphragm Large, dome shaped skeletal muscle that seperates the thoracic and abdominal cavities.
Diaphragm Contraction: Increased thoracic vol. >> increased pleural cavity volume >> decreased pressure in the pleural cavity >> expansion of lungs >> lowered pressure in lungs brings air in.
Expiration recoil of lungs occurs passively.
2 reasons lung recoil doesn't cause lungs to collapse. Force of surface tension is counterbalanced by surfactants.
Surfactants Disrupt intermolecular atraction between water molecules >> decrease surface tension.second reason : pleural pressure is always less than alveolar pressure.
respiratory membrane refers to all areas in the lungs where gas exchange occurs
Factors affecting ease and extent at which gases diffuse across resp. membrane Thickness, surface area, partial pressure of a gas
Gases diffuse from . . . and area of higher partial pressure to an area of lower partial pressure.
98.5% of O2 in blood is bound reversibly with hemogloben in RBCs.
Hemoglobin (Hb) An abundant protein in RBCs consists of 4 polypeptide chains each with an iron containing heme group.
The higher the PO2, the easier oxygen will bind to Hb.
Kidneys (location and description) Bean shaped organs, about the size of a fist. located on the posterior abdominal wall.
Major functions of Kidneys Excretion of waster producs; Regulation of blood volume and thus pressure; regulation of solutes in body's fluids; regulation of extracellular pH;
Kidneys produce __liters of filtrate/day but only __% or less is excreted 180 liters, 1%.
Examples of filtered substances water, ions, glucose, and urea
Why are cells in blood not filtered out? BECAUSE the filtration membrane acts as a size barrier so that only water and SMALL solutes
Renal Artery Major blood vessel entering a kidney
Renal Vein Major Vessels exiting a kidney.
Cortex and Medulla outer layer and inner layer, respectively
Striped appearance of kidneys Nephrons
Each kidney contains roughly how many nephrons 1.3 million
Nephrons Tubular, functional units of the kidney through which fluid and substances are filtered out of the blood and either returned to the blood or collected as urine and excreted.
Segments of the Nephron Renal corpuscle, proximal tubule, thin descending limb, thin ascending limb, thick ascending limb, distal tubule, collecting duct
Glomerular filtration Renal corpuscle is the site where blood is filtered out of the glomerular capillaries into the lumen of the nephron
Reabsorption Much of the water and solutes filtered into renal tubule can cross the epithelial cells lining the renal tubule, pass into the interstitial space, and be reabsorbed into peritubular capillaries back into blood supply
Secretion fluid and solutes can move out of the peritubular capillaries into the interstitial space, cross the epithelial cells of the renal tubule, ending up in the lumen of the renal tubule.
Rythmic ventilation is controlled by: Control depth of breathing >> amount of individual muscle fibers stimulated >> extent of contraction
Dorsal respiratory group in the medulla Longitudal column of cells >> primarily responsible for stimulation of diaphragm
ventral respiratory group in medulla : longitudinal column of cells >> prinarily responsible for stimulation of sccessory breathing muscles, such as intercostals and abdominals
Pontine Respiratory group iin pons Projects to the dorsal resp. group and appears to have a role in switching between inspiration and expiration
Chemoreceptors Dectect the amount of CO2 and 02 in the blood and alter he rate of ventilation as needed
Effect on blood oxygen and CO2 content and why? aortic and carotid body chemoreceptors activated >> hyperventilation >> respiratory alkalosis (incresed blood pH) >> Headache, fatigue, dizziness, nausea, palpitations.
Adaptation to high altitudes Increased production of RBCs and increased unloading of O2 from Hb.
COPD Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease -- a combination of both emphysema and bronchitis
Bronchitis a poorly -reversible inflamation of the bronchi cause by irritants
Emphysema Destruction of alveolar wallsCoughing to remove mucus >> increases pressure in the alvioli >> ruptures the alveolar walls
Kidneys affect blood pressure sodium handling in the renal tubules plays a major role in adjusting blood volume and hence blood pressure
Major solutes in blood (in addition to proteins and glucose) NaCl and NaHCO3
How much Na+ filtered into renal tubule is reabsorbed back into blood? 99.4%
about 2/3 of reabsorbtion occurs in the first segement of the renal tubule, the proximal tubules.
How are sodium ions moved into and out of the epithelial cells of the P.T Secondary active transport across apical membrane, primary active transport across the basolateral membrane
Isosmotic a proportional amount of the ater is reabsorbed with the solutes such that osmolarity of renal tubule fluid does not change
Major driving source for reabsorption in P.T high oncotic pressure
Na+ reabsorption must be finely tunes T or F True, a small amount can make a huge difference on blood volume.
Aldosterone Increses Na+ reabsorption in epithelium of distal tubule and collecting duct.
Nearly 100% of __ is reabsorbed in the P.T. Glucose.
Glucosuria Glucose in Urine : results from too much glucose being filtered into the renal tubule. (SGLT1 runs out)
Diabetes Mellitus Condition leading to high levels of glucose in the blood
The ability of the Kidneys to concentrate urine depends on... A strong osmotic gradient which occurs in the interstitial spae around the nephrons
Osmolarity Concentration of solutes such as Na+ and urea
Osmolarity from cortical layer to medullary layer increases
Loop of Henle helps establish osmotic gradient (countercurrent multiplication)
ADH Antidiuretic hormone, determiens whether urine will be diluted or concentrated
Diuresis dilute pee
How ADH works Increases water permeability of the distal tuule and collecting duct.
Lack of ADH distal tubule and collecting duct will be relatively impermeable to water
Scenario : walking through a desert without water. What happens? Water loss >> water loss from blood >> blood osmolarity increases >> osmoreceptors detect high osmolarity >> hypothalamus stimulates thirst and release of ADH from pituitart >> ADH traels to kidney to increase water reabsorption >> urine is concentrated
Diabetes Insipidus Individuals constantly thirsty and urinate large volumes of dilute urine. Have to drink water constantly to replace fluid.
Systolic Pressure maximal BP in arteries; occurs when heart contracts. normal value is ~12mmHg
Diastolic Pressure minimum BP in arteries which occurs when ventricles relax. normal valus is 80mmHg
Why does greatest resistance to blood flow occur in the arteries? Because norepi binds to receptors, causeing vasoconstriction
Blood flow to specific tissues? Tissue releases a chemical, (eg. skeletal muscle releases lactate) that chemical diffuses across the membrane, and causes relaxation of the arteries.
Systolic Pressure maximal BP in arteries; occurs when heart contracts. normal value is ~12mmHg
Diastolic Pressure minimum BP in arteries which occurs when ventricles relax. normal valus is 80mmHg
Why does greatest resistance to blood flow occur in the arteries? Because norepi binds to receptors, causeing vasoconstriction
Blood flow to specific tissues? Tissue releases a chemical, (eg. skeletal muscle releases lactate) that chemical diffuses across the membrane, and causes relaxation of the arteries.
Chemoreceptors Sensors able to detect changes in blood 02 and C02
Angiotensin II acts directly on smooth muscle, responsible for vasoconstriction/dilation
Created by: Katiee