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Endocrine sysyem

Endocrine system

QuestionAnswer
What is anemia? Iron deficiency Rbc turnover, they aren't reproducing
Sickle cell disease Sickle shated rbc, clogs vessels, prevalent in AA, imparts resistant to malaria, hereditary
Name the white blood cells Nueteophils, basophils, eosinophils, lymphocytes, monocytes
Categories of WBC Granulocytes, Agranulocytes
Characteristics of neutrophil 3 to 5 lobes, 65% of wbc, fastest response of wbc to fight bacteria
Neutrophil release Lysozymes for bacteria fighting, defensive proteins like antibiotics, strong oxidants like bleach
Basophils characteristics No clear nucleus, dark purple in color, less than 1% of wbc, cause serious allergy issues, inflammation and allergy reactions
Basophils release Histamines, heparin, serotonin Act as hypersensitivity allergic reaction
Eosinophils Reddish in color, 2 to 3 nucleus, 2 to 4 % circulation, leave capillaries to enter tissue fluid, attack parasite worms, phagocytize antibody
Eosinophils release Histaminase, counteract histamine, slows down inflammation
Lymphocytes characteristics Nucleus takes up most of space in cell, 20 to 25% wbc, turn in t cell and b cell, calcitonin
Lymphocytes b cells Destroy bacteria and toxins, turns into plasma that produces antibodies
What's are the functions of thyroid Regulates metabolism and calcium levels, follicular cells, parafollicular cells
What do thyroxine and triiodthyronine do Release carbs and lipid breakdown, increase protein synthesis, metabolism increases
What is goiter Iodine deficiency, thyroid swells, pituitary releases TSH..make t3 & t4
What does calcitonin do Increase calcium and phosphate deposition in bones, decrease blood calcium, stimulate oateoblast, inhibit osteoclasts Parafollicular cell
What 3 hormones does the thyroid produce Thyroxine t4, triiodthyronine t3, calcitonin
What are the hypothalamus hormones, 7 of then Growth hormones ghrh, somatostatin, prolactin releasing factor, prolactin releasing inhibiting hormone, corticotropic releasing hormones, thyrotropic releasing hormones, gonadotropin releasing hormone
What is acromegaly Too much hgh, often pit unitary tumor, uncontrolled growth, prominent brow, jaw, large nose
What is difference between oxytocin and prolactin Oxy in posterior pituitary, uterine contractions, release milk from breast. Pro in anterior pituitary, produce milk in breast
Luteinizing hormone Anterior pituitary, stimulates secretion of testosterone and estrogen, ovulation, formation of corpus leuteum
Follicle stimulating hormone Anterior pituitary, follicle formation in ovaries, sperm production in testes
Adrenocorticotropic hormone Anterior pituitary hormone, adrenal cortex... cortisol
Human growth hormone Anterior pituitary, stimulates most tissue produce insulin like growth factor, increase cell division protein synthesis
Thyroid stimulating hormone Anterior pituitary, thyroid.. metabolism, increase t3 and t4
Prolactin Anterior pituitary, mammary glands lactation stimulate production of milk
The anterior pituitary produces what hormones Human growth, prolactin, thyroid stimulating, adrenocorticotropic, follicle stimulating, luteinizing hormone
Posterior pituitary hormones Oxytocin, antidiuretic
What do antidiuretic hormones do Vasopressin, occur in kidney, increase h2o reabsorbtion, decrease urine production
What does oxytocin do Uterus contraction, mammary glands release milk
What do hormones receptors do Circulate hormones throughout body, affect target cells with specific hormone receptors
What does your thyroid do Regulate metabolism and calcium levels, follicular cells, parafollicular cells, calcitonin
Osteoclast Crush bone
Osteoblast Build bone
Nonsteriod hormones Amine, peptide, protein, prostaglandins
Steriods hormones Derived from cholesterol, lipid soluble, no surface receptor, often bound to transporter protein
What are the types of hormones Steriods and nonsteriod
Negative feedback Release of hormones decreases the amount of hormone released
Positive feedback Release hormone stimulates the release of more hormones directly or indirectly
What are the 3 endocrine transmissions Endorcrine, autocross and paracrine
What is the endocrine system functions Display transmission, exocytosis, bloodstream, hormones, growth and development and reproduction
Endocrine helps regulate EXtracellular fluid, metabolism, biological clock, contractions of caring and smooth muscle, glandular muscles, some immune functions
What does synaptic transmission do Local transmission, vesicular release, synaptic cleft, neurotransmitters
Hormones definition Substances secreted into the blood stream
Endocrine system Excrete hormones, effector can be anywhere
Hypothyroidism Stunted growth, abnormal bone formation, intellectual disability, low metabolic rate, swollen tissue
Graves disease A form of hypothyroidism
Goiter Defiency of thyroid hormones due to iodine deficiency
Facts of iron Stored in the liver muscle or spleen, in bone marrow being used for hemoglobin synthesis
Jaundice Liver doesn't dump excess bile
How is hemoglobin recycles Heme group, decomposes to biliverdin and iron, convert to bilirubin, bilirubin secreted by liver into bile, excess bilirubin.. jaundice
What does insulin do Decrease blood glucose, transport into cells.. muscle and liver.... produce by beta cells in islet
What does glucagon do Increase blood glucose, produce by alpha cells islets
Somatostatin Growth hormone inhibiting, produces by delta cells islet
Plasma proteins Albumins, globulin, fibringenious Lipid soluble
Blood spun in centrifuge separates how Plasma.. liquid protein Buffy coat.. wbc and platelet Rbc
What are the compones of blood Plasma 55%, platelet wbc 1%, rbc 45%
What does the blood do Transport gases, proteins, hormines and waate products Regulates heat Immune response Clot formation
Where is pineal gland Superior to cerebellum Posterior to thalamus, release melatonin, carcadian rhythm
Other endocrine glands Pineal gland, thymus, reproductive organs
Adult onset diabetes Type II, insulin resistance, too much blood sugar, can't get sugar into cells
Juvenile diabetes Type I, pancreas doesn't produce insulin, problem with beta cells in islet
Blood glucose disorder Polyrurea.. excessive urine Polydipsia... Constant thrist Polyphagia.. excessive eating
Endocrine clinical application Diabetes mellows Blood glucose disorder Type I.. juvenile Type II..Adult
Globulins Plasma protein Synthesized in liver 36% of circulating proteins, lipid soluble
Characteristics of rbc.. aka name Transport oxygen, lack a nuclues, concave circular shape, 120 day life cycle, recycled in liver..... erythrocyte
What does the concave circular shape of erythrocyte do Increase surface area Bend/flex through capillaries
What molecule must have 1 iron molecule Hemaglobin
One molecule hemoglobin can carry ________ oxygen molecules 4
Albumins Plasma proteins Smallest 60 % of circulating proteins Synthesize in liver Transport other proteins Maintain osmotic pressure
What are pancreas hormones Insulin Glucagon Somatostatin
What does the pancreas do Regulate blood glucose
Where is the pancreas and what are the parts called Inferior to liver Posterior to stomach Head, body, tail
Androgens Sex hormones Supplement hormones from gonads
Cortisol Glucocorticoid Glucose protein and fat metabolism Inhibits protein synthesis Stimulate glucose synthesis in liver Release of family acids from adipose tissue
Aldosterone Is a mineralocorricoI'd Blood pressure regulator Kidney..increase sodium absorb to on Excrete potassium
What are adrenal cortex hormones Aldosterone Cortisol Androgens
Pituitary gland Pea size gland Sits in Sella turcica of sphenoid bone Infundibulum connects to brain
2 lobes of pituitary gland Anterior 75 %, contains cell bodies that produce hormones Posterior 25% Contains axon terminals from cells in hypothalamus
Prostaglandin Glycoprotein Protein and carbs Fsh..follicular stimulating hormones TSH. .thyroid stimulating hormones Local action ..paracrine
Where is parathyroid gland located Posterior surface of thyroid 4 small glands
What does the parathyroid hormone do Increase blood calcium levels Stimulate osteoclasts Inhibits osteoblasts Intestine absorb more calcium
Where are adrenal glands located Above kidneys
What are the layers of the transverse section of adrenal gland Capsule Adrenal cortex Adrenal medulla
What are the layers of the adrenal cortex Zona glomerulosa Zona fasciculata Zona reticularis
The adrenal medulla hormone does what Produce fight or flight Epinephrine. ..adrenaline Norepinephrine
What does norepinephrine do Maintains cardiovascular system blood vessels Increase heart rate Force of contractions of heart Vasocinstriction in skin and vis ceramic Some dilation of airways
What does epinephrine do Affects cardiovascular system liver and airways Increase hr and force contraction Dilate airways Vasodilation in skeletal muscle Store glycogen in liver Convert it to glucose
Proteins are?? Many amino acids Parathyroid hormones Growth hormone
Peptide Nonsteriod hormones Few amino acids Vasopressin Oxytocin
Amine Nonsteriod hormones Single modified amino acid Epinephrine Nonepinephrine Derived from tyrosine
What are the non steriods types of hormones Amine Peptide Proteins Prostaglandins
What is the breakdown of steriods hormones Derived from cholesterol, diffuse across cell membrane, often bound to transporter protein
What hormones are steriods hormones Testosterone, estrogen, aldosterone, cortisol
Steps of lipid soluble hormones Diffuse across the cell membrane, hormones binds w/ receptor forming receptor hormones complex, receptor enter the nucleus and trigger gene transcription, transcribed MRNA is translated into proteins that alter cell activity
Blood platelets No nucleus, cell fragments of megakaryocytes, initial response to injury, form platelet plus
What is leukemia Cancer of the leukocytes, treatment is to destroy leukocytes and bone marrow, transplant from donor, lots of WBC
Thrombopoietin Stimulates formation of platelets, releases from liver
Erythropoietin Stimulation of RBC, released from kidney
Hematopoietic growth factors Erythropoietin and thrombopoietin
What is Hematopoiesis Formation of RBC.. Red bone marrow, stimulate by erythropoietin from kidney Formation of lymphocytes.. yellow bone marrow
Monocyte characteristics Large nucleus, usually kidney shaped Large WBC in circulation Doesn't remain in blood very long 3 to 8% of wbc Becomes macrophages in tissue Phagocytize debris
Lymphocytes t-cells Attack viruses, fungi, transplanted organs, cancer cells, some bacteria
Hormones The secreted substances diffused from the interstitial fluid into the blood stream
Definition of endocrine Internal secretion
They regulate neighboring cells Prostagladins
Short chains of amino acid hormones Peptides
Long chain of amino acid hormones that are linked and folded into specific molecule structures Protein hormones
How do steroids differ By the type and # of atoms attached to these rings
Lipids that include complex rings of carbon and hydrogen atoms Steriods
Hormones are _________ compounds Organic
What is a second messenger Biochemical in the cell that induce the changes leading to hormone effects
How does a steriods hormone act on its target cells Combines with thyroid hormones
How are hormones chemically classified Steriods and nonsteriod
Difference between endocrine and exocringe glands Endo is internal excretion of substances.. no ducts Exo is external excretion of substance through rubes or ducts that lead to body surface
Hormones are organic or inorganic hormones Organic
Three nonprotein nitrogenous substances found in plasma Creatine, amino acids and urea
Blood is a type of ______ tissue composed of extra cellular matrix and cell Connective
What are the four electrolytes found in plasma Bicarbonate Calcium Sodium Potassium
Iron is critical for thr synthesis of ______? Hemoglobin
T cell function Attack viruses, fungi, transplanted organs, cancer cells and some bacteria
B Cells function Destroy bacteria and their toxins, turn into plasma cells that produces antibodies
Histaminase Slows down inflammation caused by basophils
Histamine Heighten the inflammatory response and account for hypersensitivity reaction
Agranulocytes in WBC Lymphocytes & monocytes
Granulocytes in WBC Neutrophil, basophils & eosinophils
Erythropoiesis occurs in the?? Yolk sac, liver and spleen
Hematopoiesis Formation of blood cells
Plasma proteins Albumin, globulin and fibrinogen
What does blood do Transports gases, proteins, hormines, waste products. ...regulates hear, immune reaponse, clot formation
The average adults has _____ liters of blood 5
Blood is ___% of body weight 8
Thromb means Clot
Stasis means Halt, make stand still
Poly means Many
What hormone is inside the colloid Thyroid
What is the name of the sphere shaped cell of the thyroid Follicular
What are between the follicles of the thyroid Parafollicular cells
Parathormone regulates calcium balance in blood in what gland?? Parathyroid
The endocrine function of the pancreas consists of the secretion of Insulin, glucagon & somatostatin
The most superficial layer of the adrenal cortex Zona glomerulosa
The middle layer of adrenal cortex Zona fasciculata
What is the deepest layer of the adrenal cortex Zona reticularis
Created by: Miccimouse