Busy. Please wait.

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 

Username is available taken
show password


Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
We do not share your email address with others. It is only used to allow you to reset your password. For details read our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.

Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.

Remove Ads
Don't know
remaining cards
To flip the current card, click it or press the Spacebar key.  To move the current card to one of the three colored boxes, click on the box.  You may also press the UP ARROW key to move the card to the "Know" box, the DOWN ARROW key to move the card to the "Don't know" box, or the RIGHT ARROW key to move the card to the Remaining box.  You may also click on the card displayed in any of the three boxes to bring that card back to the center.

Pass complete!

"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
restart all cards

Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how


1440s Invention of the printing press
1517 95 Theses
1545-1563 Council of Trent
1555 Peace of Augsburg
1598 Edict of Nantes
Invention of the Printing Press Causes: Greater demand for books and the introduction of paper Effects: Higher levels of literacy, faster spread of ideas, ability to have consistent editions to discuss ideas
95 Theses Causes: Long-term Church corruption and the sale of indulgences Effects: Starts the Reformation and the Age of Religious Wars
Council of Trent Causes: Criticisms of the Catholic Church by Protestant Reformers led Catholic leaders to want to reconcile Effects: Spiritual Renewal of the Church that was the basis of Catholicism in the 20th century
Peace of Augsburg Causes: Religious Wars between Catholics and Protestants in Germany Effects: German states split between Lutheran and Catholic; religious divisions prevent national unification until 1870
Edict of Nantes Causes: French Wars of Religious between Catholics and Huguenots Effects: Ends French Wars of Religion and grants limited religious freedom for Huguenots
1525 German Peasants War
German Peasants War Cause: Long standing resentments between peasants and landowners and the introduction of Luther's ideas Effects: Luther sides with the aristocracy and confirms that he is a religious revolutionary and a social conservative
1572 St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre Causes: Tensions between Catholics and Huguenots in France -Catherine de Medici hoped could be resolved if her daughter married Henry of Navarre Effects: Starts French Wars of Religion and eventually leads to Henry of Navarre becoming King of France
c. 1350 Petrarch develops ideas of humanism
Development of humanism Causes: Reintroduction of works from classical authors via the Crusades Effects: the beginning of the Renaissance
1492 Spain conquers Grenada and Columbus sets sail
Spain conquers Grenada Causes: long-standing tensions in Spain between Muslim and Catholic rulers in Spain Effects: Jews expelled from Spain
Columbus lands in the Americas Causes: Europeans motivated to claim the Americas for God, gold and glory Effects: Europeans take over the Americas, the Columbian Exchange
1688-1689 Glorious Revolution
Glorious Revolution Causes: Long-term historical movement towards constitutionalism Effects: England creates a constitutional monarchy and over time the parliament becomes increasingly powerful at the expense of the monarch
1685 Edict of Fontainbleau (Revocation of the Edict of Nantes)
Edict of Fontainbleau Causes: increasing desire for religious uniformity to strengthen the state Effect: Religious minorities in France left, taking skills with them
1642-1649 English Civil War
English Civil War Causes: conflicts between King and Parliament over political power and religious conformity Effects: Led to a 5 year period of military rule under Oliver Cromwell
1540-1700 Scientific Revolution
1690-1789 Enlightenment
Enlightenment Causes: Spirit of scientific inquiry applied to philosophical questions Effects: leads to the Age of Revolutions
Scientific Revolution Causes: Inspired by Renaissance and technological advancements Effects: Greater understanding of astronomy and other sciences and leads to Enlightenment
1756-1763 7 Years War
7 Years War Causes: Colonial conflict Effects: Taxes on American colonists helped lead to American Revolution; Taxes on France
1776 Adam Smith writes the Wealth of Nations
1775-1783 American Revolution
American Revolution Causes: Frustration over high taxes and a lack of representation in Parliament Effects: Began a series of Revolutions throughout the Americas and Europe
1789-1799 French Revolution
French Revolution Causes: government debt, unfair social structure and taxation, economic problems such as high bread prices Effects: leads to political instability for decades, inspires revolutions in Haiti etc
1799-1815 Napoleonic Era
Napoleonic Era Causes: Political instability of the French government after the revolution caused a need for firm leadership Effects: creates turmoil throughout Europe because of several wars that kill millions of people
1870 Unifications of Italy and Germany
Unifications of Italy and Germany Causes: Nationalism and realpolitik Effects: Balance of power established by the Congress of Vienna is disturbed leading to tensions in Europe
1861 Russia's serfs are freed (Emancipation Manifesto)
Emancipation Manifesto Causes: Revolutionaries pushing for greater democratization, socialism, constitutionalism etc Effects: Creates a class of poor, indebted people that eventually push for more revolutionary change
Bloody Sunday Causes: Frustration with Russian autocracy led to demands for a constitution and a Parliament Effects: the first stage of the Russian Revolution
1905 Bloody Sunday
1914-1918 WWI
WWI Causes: Militarism, Alliances, Imperialism, Nationalism Effects: Small countries become independent, Germany ordered to pay reparations and assume war guilt
March 1917 February Revolution
February Revolution Causes: Frustration with losses in WWI, shortages of bread, weak leadership Effects: short-lived moderate government
November 1917 October/Bolshevik Revolution
October/Bolshevik Revolution Causes: WWI still going poorly Effects: Russia gets a communist dictatorship that lasts until 1989
Treaty of Versailles 1919
Treaty of Versailles Causes: Allies defeat Central Powers Effects: Resentment leads to the rise of Nazism in Germany
New Economic Policy 1921
New Economic Policy Cause: Civil War in Russia was economically devastating and necessary to financially motivate peasants Effect: Russian economy recovered
Great Depression 1929-1939
Great Depression Causes: US stock market crashed Effects: World financial markets crippled, unemployment rose, political extremism
Kristallnacht 1939
Kristallnacht Causes: Increasing anti-Semitism Effects: Marks the beginning of the Holocaust
Invasion of Poland 1939
Invasion of Poland Causes: Hitler sought lebensraum and appeasement failed to stop invasions Effects: WWII begins
US drops atomic bombs in Japan 1945
US drops atomic bombs in Japan Causes: Germany and Italy already defeated and US sought a quick end to WWII Effects: More than 200K killed; beginning of nuclear arms race between the US and USSR
Decolonization of Asia and Africa 1945-1960s
Decolonization of Asia and Africa Causes: Many imperial countries, esp Britain, no longer able to hand on to colonies and independence movements creating increasing pressure Effects: Many nations become independent but many still struggle to find political and economic stability
Founding of Israel 1948
Founding of Israel Causes: Zionist desire for a Jewish homeland intensified by Holocaust Effects: Conflict between Jews and Arabs in the Middle East
Berlin Wall 1961
Berlin Wall Causes: increasing Cold War tension Effects: City is divided until 1989
Created by: birmingham