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QuestionAnswer
1440s Invention of the printing press
1517 95 Theses
1545-1563 Council of Trent
1555 Peace of Augsburg
1598 Edict of Nantes
Invention of the Printing Press Causes: Greater demand for books and the introduction of paper Effects: Higher levels of literacy, faster spread of ideas, ability to have consistent editions to discuss ideas
95 Theses Causes: Long-term Church corruption and the sale of indulgences Effects: Starts the Reformation and the Age of Religious Wars
Council of Trent Causes: Criticisms of the Catholic Church by Protestant Reformers led Catholic leaders to want to reconcile Effects: Spiritual Renewal of the Church that was the basis of Catholicism in the 20th century
Peace of Augsburg Causes: Religious Wars between Catholics and Protestants in Germany Effects: German states split between Lutheran and Catholic; religious divisions prevent national unification until 1870
Edict of Nantes Causes: French Wars of Religious between Catholics and Huguenots Effects: Ends French Wars of Religion and grants limited religious freedom for Huguenots
1525 German Peasants War
German Peasants War Cause: Long standing resentments between peasants and landowners and the introduction of Luther's ideas Effects: Luther sides with the aristocracy and confirms that he is a religious revolutionary and a social conservative
1572 St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre Causes: Tensions between Catholics and Huguenots in France -Catherine de Medici hoped could be resolved if her daughter married Henry of Navarre Effects: Starts French Wars of Religion and eventually leads to Henry of Navarre becoming King of France
c. 1350 Petrarch develops ideas of humanism
Development of humanism Causes: Reintroduction of works from classical authors via the Crusades Effects: the beginning of the Renaissance
1492 Spain conquers Grenada and Columbus sets sail
Spain conquers Grenada Causes: long-standing tensions in Spain between Muslim and Catholic rulers in Spain Effects: Jews expelled from Spain
Columbus lands in the Americas Causes: Europeans motivated to claim the Americas for God, gold and glory Effects: Europeans take over the Americas, the Columbian Exchange
1688-1689 Glorious Revolution
Glorious Revolution Causes: Long-term historical movement towards constitutionalism Effects: England creates a constitutional monarchy and over time the parliament becomes increasingly powerful at the expense of the monarch
1685 Edict of Fontainbleau (Revocation of the Edict of Nantes)
Edict of Fontainbleau Causes: increasing desire for religious uniformity to strengthen the state Effect: Religious minorities in France left, taking skills with them
1642-1649 English Civil War
English Civil War Causes: conflicts between King and Parliament over political power and religious conformity Effects: Led to a 5 year period of military rule under Oliver Cromwell
1540-1700 Scientific Revolution
1690-1789 Enlightenment
Enlightenment Causes: Spirit of scientific inquiry applied to philosophical questions Effects: leads to the Age of Revolutions
Scientific Revolution Causes: Inspired by Renaissance and technological advancements Effects: Greater understanding of astronomy and other sciences and leads to Enlightenment
1756-1763 7 Years War
7 Years War Causes: Colonial conflict Effects: Taxes on American colonists helped lead to American Revolution; Taxes on France
1776 Adam Smith writes the Wealth of Nations
1775-1783 American Revolution
American Revolution Causes: Frustration over high taxes and a lack of representation in Parliament Effects: Began a series of Revolutions throughout the Americas and Europe
1789-1799 French Revolution
French Revolution Causes: government debt, unfair social structure and taxation, economic problems such as high bread prices Effects: leads to political instability for decades, inspires revolutions in Haiti etc
1799-1815 Napoleonic Era
Napoleonic Era Causes: Political instability of the French government after the revolution caused a need for firm leadership Effects: creates turmoil throughout Europe because of several wars that kill millions of people
1870 Unifications of Italy and Germany
Unifications of Italy and Germany Causes: Nationalism and realpolitik Effects: Balance of power established by the Congress of Vienna is disturbed leading to tensions in Europe
1861 Russia's serfs are freed (Emancipation Manifesto)
Emancipation Manifesto Causes: Revolutionaries pushing for greater democratization, socialism, constitutionalism etc Effects: Creates a class of poor, indebted people that eventually push for more revolutionary change
Bloody Sunday Causes: Frustration with Russian autocracy led to demands for a constitution and a Parliament Effects: the first stage of the Russian Revolution
1905 Bloody Sunday
1914-1918 WWI
WWI Causes: Militarism, Alliances, Imperialism, Nationalism Effects: Small countries become independent, Germany ordered to pay reparations and assume war guilt
March 1917 February Revolution
February Revolution Causes: Frustration with losses in WWI, shortages of bread, weak leadership Effects: short-lived moderate government
November 1917 October/Bolshevik Revolution
October/Bolshevik Revolution Causes: WWI still going poorly Effects: Russia gets a communist dictatorship that lasts until 1989
Treaty of Versailles 1919
Treaty of Versailles Causes: Allies defeat Central Powers Effects: Resentment leads to the rise of Nazism in Germany
New Economic Policy 1921
New Economic Policy Cause: Civil War in Russia was economically devastating and necessary to financially motivate peasants Effect: Russian economy recovered
Great Depression 1929-1939
Great Depression Causes: US stock market crashed Effects: World financial markets crippled, unemployment rose, political extremism
Kristallnacht 1939
Kristallnacht Causes: Increasing anti-Semitism Effects: Marks the beginning of the Holocaust
Invasion of Poland 1939
Invasion of Poland Causes: Hitler sought lebensraum and appeasement failed to stop invasions Effects: WWII begins
US drops atomic bombs in Japan 1945
US drops atomic bombs in Japan Causes: Germany and Italy already defeated and US sought a quick end to WWII Effects: More than 200K killed; beginning of nuclear arms race between the US and USSR
Decolonization of Asia and Africa 1945-1960s
Decolonization of Asia and Africa Causes: Many imperial countries, esp Britain, no longer able to hand on to colonies and independence movements creating increasing pressure Effects: Many nations become independent but many still struggle to find political and economic stability
Founding of Israel 1948
Founding of Israel Causes: Zionist desire for a Jewish homeland intensified by Holocaust Effects: Conflict between Jews and Arabs in the Middle East
Berlin Wall 1961
Berlin Wall Causes: increasing Cold War tension Effects: City is divided until 1989
Created by: birmingham